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#3 Water Treatment Handout | Water Purification | Filtration

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   UILDING UTILITIES 1TYPES OF WATER TREATMENTSEDIMENTATION This process removes some suspe!e! m ##er $rom % #er simp&' (' &&o%i) #ime ! #he i c#ivi#' o$ % #er #o !o #he %or* o$ se##&i) ou# he vier suspe!e! p r#ic&es+ ,OAGULATION -F&occu& #io. This process removes some suspe!e! m ##er/ &o) %i#h some co&or #io+ A co )u& # such s &um -h'!r #e! &umium su&$ #e. is !!e! #o $orm )e& #ious su(s# ce c &&e! $&oc + AERATION -O0i! #io. This process c  improve #he # s#e ! co&or o$ % #er/ remove iro ! m ) ese ! !ecre se i corrosiveess+ I er #io/ s much o$ #he % #er sur$ ce s possi(&e is e0pose! #o ir+ The me#ho!s use! re rich i es#he#ic possi(i&i#ies1  Spr 'i) o$ % #er i#o ir/ #he $ && o$ #ur(u&e# s#re m o$ % #er over spi&&% '/ ! $&o% $orms/ scu&p#ur & % #er $ &&s !esi)e! #o c rr' % #er i rh'#hmic &/ pu&s #i) p ##er O2ONATION O3o #io is % #er #re #me# process #h # !es#ro's ( c#eri ! o#her microor) isms #hrou)h  i$usio o$ o3oe/ ) s pro!uce! (' su(4ec#i) o0')e mo&ecu&es #o hi)h e&ec#ric & vo&# )es+O3oe is ver' s#ro) !isi$ec# #/ (u# i# !oes o# rem i i % #er ver' &o)+ For #h # re so/ ch&orie is s#i&& !!e! #o pro#ec##he % #er %hi&e i# is i #he !is#ri(u#io s's#em+ FILTRATION is #he process o$ usi) $i&#er  #o mech ic &&' sep r #e  mi0#ure o$  so&i!s  ! $&ui!s+   TYPES OF FILTRATIONS&o% S ! $i&#ers Use! $or r i% #er pp&ic #io/ &o% m i#e ce/ e si&' cos#ruc#e! !evices #h # shou&! (e c&e e! s o$#e s #he #ur(i!i#' o$ % #er !em !s+ The' re c&e e! (' #he remov & o$ $i&#ers/ %hich re ei#her % she! $or reuse or !isc r!e!+ Pressure S ! Fi&#ers I# re5uires co#ro& ! #he ##e#io o$ #he oper #or/ ! #hus re r re&' use! $or i!ivi!u & % #er s's#ems Di #om ceous E r#h Fi&#ers  A&so *o% s perco #  or !i #omi#e $i&#r #io / i# re&ies o & 'er o$ !i #om ceous e r#h o$ miimum 167 i+ #hic* $i&#er e&eme#+ This c  (e ei#her v cuum or pressure #'pe+ The' re5uire perio!ic ##e#io -189 ! 's. #o m *e i# e$$ec#ive+ Di #om ceous e r#h/ su(s# ce compose! o$ $ossi& !i #oms / is use! i $i&#ers/ isu& #io/ (r sives/ p i#s/ ! v rishes+ Porous S#oe/ ,er mic or U)& 3e! Porce& i Fi&#ers -P s#eur Fi&#ers. These re usu &&' m !e i sm && si3es so #h # #he' c  (e ## che! #o % #er $ uce#s N o$i&#r #io -Fie Fi&#r #io. These mem(r e si3es s# r# %i#h pore si3es o$ :+; #o :+< micros+ I# is com(ie! process #h # removes iro/ c &cium/ !6or m ) ese $rom % #er+ Wi#h such e0#reme&' sm && pores si3es/ #his process re5uires ver' hi)h % #er pressures+ Ac#iv #e! , r(o Fi&#ers These re p r#icu& r&' e$$ec#ive $or removi) # s#es ! o!or+ W #er is p sse! #hrou)h )r u& r c r(o/ %hich ##r c#s & r)e 5u #i#ies o$ !isso&ve! ) ses/ so&u(&e or) ics ! $ie so&i!s+ Reverse Osmosis  A %i!e&' use me#ho! $or !es &i #i) se % #er/ some#imes use! #o re!uce #he mier & co#e# i % #er+ A ier#/ semi8perme (&e mem(r e h s hi)her pressure -<:81:::psi. supp&' % #er o oe si!e/ s #he pressure s&o%&' $orces % #er #hrou)h #his $i&#eri) mem(r e/ mos# o$ #he mier &s -!isso&ve! so&i!s. re remove!+ Disso&ve! chemic &s/ ho%ever rem i+ DISINFE,TION This is #he mos# impor# # he &#h8re& #e! % #er #re #me#+ A&#hou)h ch&ori #io h s (ecome #he s# ! r! ppro ch #o removi) h rm$u& or) ism $rom % #er/ #here re o#her &#er #ives+ ,=EMI,AL DISINFE,TANTS,h&orie I# is #he mos# %i!e&' use! !isi$ec# # i #he %or&!/ #hou)h c re mus# (e # *e (ec use e0cessive mou#s o$ ch&orie c  c use corrosio s resu&# o$ i#s s#ro) o0i! #io ch r c#eris#ics+ ,h&ori!e is re !i&' remove! (' c#iv #e! c r(o $i&#ers ! e si&' rise! ou# $rom #he s's#em+ ,h&or mies These compou!s resu&#i) $rom #he re c#io o$ mmoi %i#h ch&orie i % #er so&u#io re use! !ue #o i#s superior chemic & s# (i&i#' over ch&orie+ Io!ie This commo re& #ive o$ ch&orie h s (ee use! $or 'e rs (' c mpers i !isi$ec#i) u*o% % #ers/ #hou)h some )r m8e) #ive ( c#eri c  (ecome resis# # #o io!ie+ ,h&orie Dio0i!e ,h&orie !io0i!e e0hi(i#s s#ro)er !isi$ec#i) ch r c#eris#ics #h  ch&or mies/ (u# #here is &i##&e evi!ece o$ e0#esive use o$ #he !isi$ec# #+   A e0 mp&e o$  e0ce&&e# !sor(e# is #he ch rco & use! i ) s m s*s #o remove poisos or impuri#ies $rom s#re m o$ ir+ ,OAGULATIONSEDIMENTATIONFILTRATIONDISINFE,TION DISTILLATION I #his process/ % #er is he #e! #o &&o% co!es #io+ As #he % #er #urs #o v por/ vir#u &&' && po&&u# #s re &e$# (ehi!+ FLUORIDATION F&uori!e m ' he&p i miimi3i) #oo#h !ec ' (u# e0cessive mou#s re #o0ic ! c use! mo##&e! #ee#h+ F&uori!e &eve&smus# (e c re$u&&' moi#ore!+ ,ORROSION ,ONTROL I# is #he co#ro& o$ coce#r #io o$ e&eme#s i corro!i) supp&' ! !isch r)e &ies+ ,orrosio is s&o% !e)r ! #io o$  me# & (' $&o% o$ e&ec#ric curre# $rom #he me# & #o i#s surrou!i)s+ NUISAN,E ,ONTROL  A&) e )ro%#hs/ #he mos# prev &e# uis ce/ c  usu &&' (e co#ro&&e! (' pp&'i) copper su&$ #e -(&ue s#oe or vi#rio&. #o #he % #er (o!'+ ,oo&i) #o%ers re  especi &&' !i$$icu&# % #er #re #me# pro(&em+ To #re # coo&i) #o%ers % #er success$u&&'/ me#ho! is use! $or micro(i & co#ro&/ removi) or) ics ! precipi# #i) or) ics+ ADSORPTION  A!sorp#io is mech ism o$ co# mi # remov & m *i) use o$ #he !sorp#io pheomeo/ #he c# o$ ph'sic & !hesio o$ mo&ecu&es or co&&oi!s #o #he sur$ ce o$ #he me!ium %6o chemic & re c#io+ Some porousm #eri &s h ve #he (i&i#' #o ##r c# co# mi #s+ ULTRA>IOLET RADIATION E0posure #o U> r !i #io is use! i sm &&8sc &e % #er supp&ies+ W #er is e0pose! #o #he r 's $#er $i&#r #io (ec use p r#ic&es o$ se!ime# i % #er mi)h# shie&! #he ( c#eri + WATER DESALINATION The proce!ure is !oe (' he #i) se % #er #he pumpi) % #er i#o &o% pressure # */ %here #he % #er v por is co!ese! ! remove! s pure % #er+ The rem ii) &i5ui! is c &&e! (rie+  ,h&orie  ) s/ poiso/ % s #he $irs# ) s use! i chemic & % r$ re i Wor&! W r I+ I# c uses su$$oc #io/ cos#ric#io o$ #he ches#/ #i)h#ess i #he #hro #/ ! e!em o$ #he &u)s+  rie S &# % #er/ p r#icu& r&' hi)h&' coce#r #e! % #er so&u#io o$ commo s &# -so!ium ch&ori!e.+ N #ur & (ries occur u!er)rou!/ i s &# & *es/ or s se % #er ! re commerci &&' impor# # sources o$ commo s &# ! o#her s &#s/ such s ch&ori!es ! su&$ #es o$ m )esium ! po# ssium+ Brie is use! s preserv #ive i me #8p c*i) - s i core! (ee$. ! pic*&i)+ I re$ri)er #io ! coo&i) s's#ems/ (ries re use! s he #8#r s$er me!i (ec use o$ #heir &o% $ree3i) #emper #ures or s v pour8 (sorp#io )e#s (ec use o$ #heir &o% v pour pressure+ Brie is &so use! #o 5uech -coo&. s#ee&+ S&o% s ! $i&#er i&&us#r #io
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