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- A chapter, “Armenians_of_Romania_and_their_cultural_and_religious_endeavours” , in Marina Dmitrieva, Bálint Kovács, Stefan Troebst (eds.), Die Kunst der Armenier im östlichen Europa [The Armenian Church in Europe], Böhlau, Köln, 2014,

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- A chapter, “Armenians_of_Romania_and_their_cultural_and_religious_endeavours” , in Marina Dmitrieva, Bálint Kovács, Stefan Troebst (eds.), Die Kunst der Armenier im östlichen Europa [The Armenian Church in Europe], Böhlau, Köln, 2014, pp. 59-67
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  Armenians of Romania and their cultural and religious endeavours  Elena Ene D-Vasilescu, Oxford AbstractIn the fifth century the Byzantine rulers resettled Armenians in Macedonia – this was the  beginning of the Armenian diaspora in the Balkans. Brought by history in various waves of immigration to the Romanian lands since the tenth century (they were attested for the first time in !" at #etatea Alb$%& Armenians even managed to have rulers on the throne in the territories that constitute 'resentday Romania. Ioan )od$ cel #um'lit *the +errible, (-"/-"0% is the best known.1ncouraged and su''orted by many economic facilities created for them by the local authorities& Armenians ke't their culture alive. 2ome of their monuments still stand in a few Romanian towns and cities. Among them the most significant are the churches in Boto3ani (-45%& Ia3i (-4%& 2uceava (the first one built in -4667 only four from the seven erected there later still e8ist%& Bucharest (the cathedral – the first building -!46& the latest -----7 it is based on the model of the #athedral in 1chmiadzin%& and B$r$9ia #hurch (-!/%. Armenian museums are also still in use (for e8am'le& :ambaccian and Avakian%. +he art of this ethnic grou' has influenced the local culture& and that is visible in the case of the church of #urtea de Arge3 Monastery (--"% and in that of +rei Ierarhi *+hree ;ierarchs,& Ia3i& (-!4%.My 'a'er will describe some of these monuments in order to em'hasize the 'ositive role  'layed by the Armenian diaspora in the develo'ment of culture in the lands stretching  between the <anube and the =ister. Armenians of Romania and their cultural and religious endeavours In the nineteenth century and at the beginning of the twentieth& Armenian culture was more fre>uently referenced in Romanian history books than is the case now. My cha'ter intends to underline the need for kee'ing the res'ective nation and its values within the focus of researchers in Romania and other countries& and 'erha's within the attention of the Armeniansthemselves& wherever they live. It also attem'ts to ?ustify this necessity and to e8'ress the ho'e that a resurgence of studies concerning the Armenian contribution to the society of the countries in which they live& including Romanian lands& will follow.1ven though one can s'eak about an Armenian dias'ora in the Balkans on a larger scale starting with the fifth century& when the Byzantine rulers resettled Armenians in Macedonia& the re'resentatives of this 'eo'le were attested for the first time in the Romanian 1  territories in the tenth century at #etatea Alb$ (@ig. -%& a town on the =ister River. 2ergiu 2elian >uotes rigore oilav (oilavian%s mention of a tombstone inscri'tion in that town& which readsC D+his cross is carved in 0-!E. According to the Armenian calendar introduced on-- Fuly -& the year 0-! is !" A<. 2elian also refers to a religious inscri'tion from --"0 and to coins minted on the orders of the Armenian kings in #ilicia that were used for trade in the area. -  Armenian merchants going from #rimea to alitia 'assed through #etatea Alb$& andcommerce flourished there. An Armenian #hurch was in e8istence in this town in the twelfth century. / +he fall of the Bagratuni kingdom in -50& the con>uest of Ani by 2el?uk +urks led byAr' Arslan in -5!0& the re'eated +artar invasions (-/4& -/& etc.%& the earth>uake and famine of -4-& and the Mongol invasion in -40/& were all events which 'reci'itated many Armenians to take refuge in the territories that are today Romania. @rom the fourteenth century onwards they were encouraged to settle by having s'ecial conditions 'ut in 'lace for them& as will be shown further. +hey became a familiar 'resence in towns such as& for e8am'le& 2uceava& Bucharest& and Boto3ani& and were good entre'reneurs in the communities in which they lived. +he Armenians were awarded 'olitical re'resentation and degrees of selfgovernance. @ig. -. #etatea Alb$   fortress ; ridersontheglobe.com/stages/tag/  cetatea - alba 7 this imagine was downloaded on the/4rd of Fune& /5-4. Ale8andru cel Bun *the Gind, invited Armenian merchants from Holand& es'ecially from vov and #racow& to come to Moldova& and to this res'ect he issued a few decreesC a ;risov on the 45th of Fuly -05- regarding the enthronement of an Armenian Bisho' in 1  2ergiu 2 1IA= & Schiţă istorică a comunităţii armene din România  *A historical outline of the Armenian community in Romania,. Bucure3ti& Ararat& -& -!-7 #f. =icolae I JRA & Choses d’art arménieniennes en  Roumanie & #onfKrence donK au #ollLge Morat en mars -40& in  Revue historiue du sud-est européen  -–4 (-4%. 2  2 1IA=  (cf. n. -%& -. 2  2uceava (@ig. /% and another one on the 6th of Jctober -05" to e8em't the Armenians from  'aying ta8es and customs. 4   @ig. /. +he document (;risov% issued by the Hrince Ale8andru the Gind on the 45th of Fuly -05-& regarding the enthronement of an Armenian Bisho' in 2uceava& 2ergiu 2elian& Schiţă istorică a comunităţii armene din  România *A ;istorical 2ketch of the Armenian #ommunity in Romania,& 1ditura Ararat& Bucharest& -& Illustration -& *'. -/4,. 2ome noble families in the Romanian Hrinci'alities were of Armenian srcin and they even managed to attain the throne. Ioan *Fohn,& 2te'hen the reats grandson by Bogdan the +hird and a lady from the Armenian family 2er'ega& was the ruling Hrince of Moldavia between -"/ and -"0. ;e was surnamed Armeanul (the Armenian% or& more often& )od$ cel #um'lit (the +errible )oivode%& or cel )iteaz (the Brave% for the fierce resistance with which he o''osed the +urks. In -"" and -"6 successively the two brothers of Ioan )od$ ruled in Moldova. +hey were arabed Ioan Hotcoav$ and Ale8andru 2er'ega. Also the son of the latter& Hetru #azacul& briefly became the ruler in Moldova in -/. 0 2ubse>uent events& such as the +urkishHersian wars at the beginning of the seventeenth century& the massacres in -6& and the genocide in -- brought new waves of Armenian refugees to various countries in 1uro'e& including Romania. +hey received citizenshi' through the decision taken by the international 'rotectorate over the Romanian Hrinci'alities (instituted after the #rimean ar and the ensuing +reaty of Haris% to e8tend civilrights to all religious minorities. ith the e8ce'tion of the Ntefanitsada event that took 'lace in the si8teenth century (in -- Ntefan Rares killed Armenians  % in a Moldavian 'rinci'ality troubled by a struggle for 'ower& the re'resentatives of this nation were always welcome in the Romanian 'rinci'alities. ;el'ed through many economic facilities offered to them by the 3  +igran  RIJRIA= &  !storia si cultura poporului armean  *+he history and the culture of the Armenian 'eo'le,& Bucharest -4& 460. 4  Ibid.& 4 5  <avid Marshall  A= & "he #rmenians. # people in e$ile & eorge Allen O Pnwin& ondon -6/& -54. 3  local authorities& Armenians ke't their culture alive& and their artistic and architectural achievements celebrate their identity. Many of their monuments still stand in various Romanian towns and cities. Among them the churches in Boto3ani (-45%& Ia3i (-4%& 2uceava (the first one built in -4667 only four from the seven erected there later still e8ist%& Bucharest (the cathedral – the first building -!46& the latest -----%& and B$r$9ia #hurch (-!/% – the latter two still standing– are the most significant.  @ig. 4a. :amca Monastery& in . Nimanschi&  %&n&stirea 'amca( Bucharest -!"7 @ig. 4 b. altar in the church of :amca Monastery& ibid. +he cathedral in Bucharest has as its 'atrons the ;oly Archangels. +he work done on it in --- was by the architect <imitri Maimarolu who went to Armenia to study the structural design and scul'tures of the 1tchmiadzin #athedral. Jn the advice of +oros +oromanyan ! & the Romanian architect built the church in Bucharest as a re'lica of 1tchmiadzin& only smaller.Armenian art was influenced by and has influenced the local milieu. 1ven though insome cases the im'act of Armenian art is very evident& it has not always been recognized assuch7 sometimes& es'ecially in recent literature& the most one can find is a comment made in 'assing that one monument or another reveals signs of an QJriental ins'iration – not namedas being Armenian. @or e8am'le& not even R$zvan +heodorescu& who in general& as we shallsee further& recognises foreign contributions by concretely naming them in his other books& in  )iatra "rei !erhahilor he does not indicate in concrete terms the Armenian touchescons'icuous in this 'articular church. +heodorescu saysC D*+he Romanian civilization, is one&I would dare to write& with 'ersistent tendencies towards universality& in which the founderstaste cannot 'roduce any wonder& but at the same time with discernment towards the countrystraditions& the ate Renaissance& the estern Baro>ue& and towards the +urkishHersian or  6  +oros +oromanyan& an im'ortant architect and historian in the first half of twentieth century. In -/-he held a series of lectures on the history of architecture of Ancient Armenia at the Pniversity of erevan. 4  #aucasian 1ast – for which *..., some 'rincely buildings of Ia3i& such as the +hree ;ierarchswith Jriental Qembroidered stone facades& e8em'larily bring testimonyE. "  As noted here&these remarks do not go into the 'articulars of the meaning of the words Q#aucasian 1ast or QJriental.  @ig. 0. a. +he iconostasis in the church of <ragomirna Monastery7 fig 0 b. +he Altar <oors on this iconostasis& inIon Miclea and Radu @lorescu&  *ragomirna & Meridiane& Bucharest& -"!& figs. """6 in that book. +he artistic and any other kind of works realised by the Armenian dias'ora& not only give evidence of the intellectual resources this ethnic grou' 'ossess& but also of the ways its members have found to blend in with other accom'lishments (by Romanians% in the territories between the <anube and the =ister. 2elian e8'licitly describes some of them within the abovementioned indigenous conte8t as followsC DIt is interesting to notice that the Armenian churches in +ransylvania are usually built in the style s'ecific to *the local, #atholic religious  buildings& without s'ecific Armenian features being 'resent in their architecture and carved 7  R$zvan + ;1J<JR12#P  and Ioan J HR1A &  )iatra "rei !erarhilor *+he stone of the +hree ;ierarchs church,& Meridiane& Bucure3ti -"& -. 5
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