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Abrams -Peirce, Kant, And Apel on Transcendental Semiotics. the Unity of Apperception and the Deduction of the Categories of Signs | Noumenon | Immanuel Kant

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Peirce, Kant, and Apel on Transcendental Semiotics: The Unity of Apperception and the Deduction of the Categories of Signs Author(s): Jerrold J. Abrams Source: Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society, Vol. 40, No. 4 (Fall, 2004), pp. 627-677 Published by: Indiana University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40321022 . Accessed: 04/05/2011 18:43 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/pag
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  Peirce, Kant, and Apel on Transcendental Semiotics: The Unity of Apperception and theDeduction of the Categories of SignsAuthor(s): Jerrold J. AbramsSource: Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society, Vol. 40, No. 4 (Fall, 2004), pp. 627-677Published by: Indiana University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40321022. Accessed: 04/05/2011 18:43 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unlessyou have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and youmay use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at . http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=iupress. . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.  Indiana University Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Transactionsof the Charles S. Peirce Society. http://www.jstor.org  Jerrold.Abrams Peirce,Kant,ndApelonTranscendentalemiotics:TheUnityfApperceptionandtheDeductionoftheCategoriesfSigns SOCRATES:.Nowbythinking'oyoumeanheamesIdo?THEAETETUS: Whatdoyoumeanbyt?SOCRATES:A talkwhichhe soulhaswith tself boutobjectsunderconsideration...Itseems ome that he oulwhen tthinksssimplycarryingna discussion n which t asks tselfuestionsndanswersthemitself,ffirmsrdenies.Andwhen itarrivestsomethingdefinite,itheryagradualrocessra suddeneap,when t affirmsonethingonsistentlynd withoutividedcounsel,we callthistsjudgement.oinmyview,tojudgeis to make astatement,ndjudgements astatementhich s notaddressed o anotherersonrspokenloud,butsilentlyddressedo oneself.-Plato,Theaetetus,89e-190a1 IntroductionAccordingothe Germanragmatistarl-Ottopel,Charles. Peirces the Kant ofAmerica Apel1980,p.80),becausehedevelopedthoroughgoingtranscendentalhilosophyfsignsandlanguage.ApelfollowsPeirceinthisproject,ndcallst transcendentalemiotics. Within ranscendentalemioticskeyproblem-articulatednApel'sbook,TowardsTransformationfPhilosophyis thegroundworkf theunityfapperceptionndthe deductionof thecategoriesfsigns.Apelconceivespperceptions Peirce's longrun state fnquiry.hisaccounts,however,otentirelyithout tsproblems.o,asanalternative,willsuggesthatemioticpperceptioneconceiveds theimmediateriadicign,whichflowsntothe futureasPeircehimselfriginallyconceivedt).Thisaccounthas the distinctdvantagefbeingogically-prioroApel'songrunccount;nd itavoidsheproblemf thecircularependencefthegroundworknagoal(asthegoalpresupposeshegroundwork).ltimately,too,thisemioticnityfapperceptionastheverynitynd form fmeaning)isalsotheformfthe triadicogicalrelative whichPeirce,ollowingugustusDeMorgan,helpedpioneer).FromthisperspectiveftheunityfmeaningndTransactionsfheCharles .PeirceocietyFall,2004,Vol.XL,No.4  628Jerrold.Abramsrelativeogic,wemaythenproceedtothe transcendentaleductionf Peirce'sKantianategoriesfFirstness,econdness,ndThirdness,hichdeterminellpossible xperience,nd areunifiedhroughpperception.Part. TheTranscendentalnityfApperceptionnSemioticsA.Terminology:ranscendentalemioticsKant defines ranscendentalogicn theCritique fPureReasonas follows: Ientitle ranscendentalllknowledgewhichsoccupiednot somuchwithobjectss with he mode of ourknowledgefobjectsn so far s thismodeofknowledgesto bepossible priori.Asystemf suchconceptsmighte entitledtranscendentalhilosophy A12/B26).2The firstssentialtepnconstructingtranscendentalystemfphilosophys the layingf thegroundwork. hismeans(inthe Kantianense)establishinghehighestprinciplesfthought,whichreapriorimeaninghatheymustbe establishedeforenypossiblefurtheronstruction fthought e.g., scientific, sintheCritiqueofPureReason^r moral, sintheGroundworkftheMetaphysicsfMorals3).Kantmakeshispointn theCritiquewhenhewrites sfollows:Onlynsofar swebuilduponthisfoundation owehave areliableouchstone orstimatinghephilosophicalalue ofoldand new works n this ield.Otherwiseheunqualifiedhistorian rcritic spassingudgments ponthegroundlessssertionsf othersbymeansofhisown,whichreequally groundless. 4entralmongtheseapriorideas is theunityfapperceptionand,forKant,thiss thepartialsentence,Ithink, hichccompaniesnd unifiesveryhoughtndexperiencethe I caneverhave.It ispreciselyereonthe Ithink )hathe transitiono transcendentalsemiotics akesplace.InPeirce'shands(andApel's),Kant'stranscendentalepistemologyecomesatranscendentalemioticsn theverymoment wesubstituteut heKantianubjectiveroundworkf the I, andsubstitutenthenewintersubjectiveeirceangroundworkfsemiosis.Apelmakesexactlyhispoints follows:Thetermtranscendentalemeiotic'maybe taken asconnotinghePeirceanrogramf atransformationfKant'stranscendentalogic,'aprogramhat,sitwere,replacestheKantianconceptof thetranscendentalsubjectofknowledgewith that of theindefinitecommunityofsigninterpretation,seeApel1972/1974/1980;and1981,part)(Apel1995,p.376)Peircewouldcertainlygree,lthough, ltimatelyisown viewofapperceptionsnothowApelconceivest.  Peirce, ant,andApelon Transcendentalemiotics29B. Peirce'se-DefinitionfApperceptionPeircetellsus thathe almostknewbyheart CP 1.560)theentiretyfKant'sfirstritique.Reflectingackuponhisearlymmersionnthiswork,Peircexplainsis devotion:In theearlyixtieswasapassionateevoteeofKant,teast,fthatpartfhisphilosophyhichppearsntheTranscendentalAnalyticftheCriticf thePure Reason.believedmoremplicitlynthe twotablesof theFunctions fJudgmentnd theCategorieshanftheyhad beenbroughtdownfromSinai (RLT124).ThisearlymmersionulminatednPeirce'sfamous1867essay, ANewListofCategories. The New List providesbotha formal ranscendentaleductionofthecategories,ndanaccount ofapperception.is categories re new (asinthe NewList )becausetheyre fewernnumbercomparedoKant's fourgroupsfthree,rAristotle'sten);andbecausetheyareunifiedthrough linguisticconsistency Peirce's pperception).Thatis,itispreciselyere(onthepointaboutconsistency)hatPeircereplacesKant's I withthe unityfconsistency n the streamfsigns.Onthis,Peircewrites sfollows:We findthateveryudgementssubjecttoaconditionfconsistency:tselementsmustbecapableofbeingbroughtoaunity. 5Whilethis ccountremainslightlynderdevelopednthe NewList, Peircedoes,ayearlaterinhis 1868paper SomeConsequencesof FourIncapacities, egintofilltout(and,indeed,directlyontrastst withKant'sownaccount).AsPeirceputstclearly,... consciousnesss sometimessedtosignifyhethink,runitynthought;ut thisunitysnothingutconsistency,or therecognitionft.Consistency elongsoevery ign,ofar s itis asign;andthereforeveryignincetsignifiesrimarilyhat tssign,ignifiestsownconsistency W2:240-l).6So,inplaceof theman as an I, Peirceputsthe man-sign W2:240and241);because,ccordingoPeirce,...my anguagestheumtotalofmyselfCP5.314;see alsoW2:241);and ... thewordorsignwhichmanusesis themanhimself...manis asign (W2:241);heis,Peircewrites,a trainfthought W2:241).C.ApeVsevisionfeirce'spperceptions theongRunApel'srevisionfPeirce'sriginalccountfapperceptionakeslacen twostages.Thefirsttages therecognitionfapperceptionsthemmediateign'sconsistencypreciselysPeircehimselfdentifiest).ApelagreeswithPeirceonthispoint.Butthesecondstageofthe transitionstheextensionfthatconsistencyotentiallynfinitelynto hefuture.ereisthefirsttagenApel:Thephraseunityfconsistency,'sedbyPeircenhiscriticism,howsthedirectionnwhichPeircehimselfssearchingor thehighestoint'ofhis transcendentaldeduction:'Hisconcern,t istrue,snotwiththeobjectivenityfideasin aself-consciousnessutrather
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