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Abrams | Sentence (Linguistics) | Phrase

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Training Series The Sentence Fragment and the Run-on Sentence Abrams’ Guide to Grammar The Sentence Fragment A sentence needs a subject and a verb. It must include at least one clause capable of standing alone (independent clause). An independent clause contains a subject and a verb and makes a complete statement. A dependent clause may not stand alone as a sentence. Although it contains both a subject and a verb, a dependent clause does not express a complete statement. The following words
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  Training   Series The SentenceFragment andthe Run-onSentence   Abrams’ Guide to Grammar 2© 1994-2000, IconLogic. All Rights Reserved. The Sentence Fragment A sentence needs a subject and a verb. It must include at least one clause capable of standing alone (independent clause). An independent clause contains a subject and averb and makes a complete statement.A dependent clause may not stand alone as a sentence. Although it contains both asubject and a verb, a dependent clause does not express a complete statement. Thefollowing words (subordinating conjunctions), and other similar words, will make aclause incapable of standing alone. The more important information should always be inthe independent clause; the less important, in the dependent clause.A sentence fragment is a word group that cannot stand alone as a sentence but ispunctuated as if it were a sentence. A fragment is difficult to understand because it is anincomplete statement. Go through the Confidence Check that appears on the next page tosee if you can spot sentence fragments.Here are some examples of sentence fragments: ! Running for the bus that was turning the corner. ! The man with the large, black briefcase. ! While we waited during the rainstorm. ! In the afternoon before the meeting. ! That we had a good idea for the convention that was to be held inHouston, Texas, next month. afterifwhenalthoughsincewheneverasthatwhichas thoughthoughwhicheverbeforeunlesswhobecauseuntilwhyhowwhat  The Sentence Fragment and the Run-on Sentence  © 1994-2000, IconLogic. All Rights Reserved.3 Confidence Check Identify each word group as either a sentence (S) or afragment (F).1.He went to the conference.2.When he went to the conference.3.When he went to the conference, he met with training officers from manyGovernment agencies.4.As mentioned in the preceding letter.5.As mentioned in the preceding letter, we will send you a draft of this year’s report.6.We will send you a draft of this year’s report.7.Regarding your letter of April 15 about the recent revisions to the Federal Tax Codeand their implications for the U.S. economy.8.Thank you for your letter of April 15 about the recent revisions to the Federal TaxCode and their implications for the U.S. economy.9.We read with interest your letter of April 15 about the recent revisions to theFederal Tax Code and their implications for the U.S. economy.10.With respect to your letter of April 15 about the recent revisions to the Federal TaxCode and their implications for the U.S. economy.   Abrams’ Guide to Grammar 4© 1994-2000, IconLogic. All Rights Reserved. Answers 1. S- The sentence has one independent clause.2. F- The word when makes this word group a dependent clause.3. S- The sentence has one independent clause ( he met with training officers from manyGovernment agencies ) and one dependent clause ( When he went to the conference ).4. F- This word group is a phrase, as it has neither a subject nor a verb.5. S- The sentence has one independent clause ( we will send you a draft of this year’sreport  ) with an introductory phrase (  As mentioned in the preceding letter  ).6. S- The sentence has one independent clause.7. F- This word group is a phrase, as it has neither a subject nor a verb.8. S- The sentence has one independent clause.9. S- The sentence has one independent clause.10. F- This word group is a phrase, as it has neither a subject nor a verb.
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