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Abrasion Resistance of GMA Metal Cored Wire Surfaced Deposits | Wear | Alloy

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Abrasion resistance of GMA metal cored wires surfaced deposits A. Klimpela, L.A. Dobrza skib, D. Janickia, A. Lisieckia   a Welding Department, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, ul. Konarskiego 18A, Poland Division of Materials Processing Technology and Computer Techniques in Materials Science, Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, ul. Konarskiego 18A, Poland b Abstract: A study was undertaken of four iron and
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    Abrasion resistance of GMA metal cored wires surfaced deposits A. Klimpel a , L.A. Dobrza   ski b , D. Janicki a , A. Lisiecki a   a Welding Department, Silesian University of Technology,44-100 Gliwice, ul. Konarskiego 18A, Poland b Division of Materials Processing Technology and Computer Techniques in MaterialsScience, Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, ul. Konarskiego 18A, Poland Abstract: A study was undertaken of four iron and two cobalt based hardfacing alloys asGMA cored wire surfaced to evaluate quantitatively their low-stress abrasion resistance as afunction of chemical composition and hardness. ASTM G 65 Procedure A was used as themethod of abrasion resistance evaluation. The most important variable in determining low-stress abrasion resistance was found to be chemical composition (microstructure) of thedeposit. One and three layer deposits of high chromium cast iron and cobalt alloy based alloyshave shown highest abrasion resistance, over 2,5 times higher than HARDOX 400 steel.Hardness has secondary effect on abrasion resistance and can not be use as the abrasionresistance indicator. Dilution has an important effect on abrasion resistance of iron basedalloys. Keywords: cobalt based alloy; Hardox 400; abrasion resistance 1. INTRODUCTION Semi- and automatic GMA flux and metal cored wire surfacing is one of most popularmethod of surfacing of new or worn machine parts. It is possible to deposit layers in allpositions with efficiency from a few up a dozen or so kilograms of weld metal deposit perhour [1-5].Modern metal cored wires allow to deposit layers providing a broad spectrum of almostoptional chemical compositions e.g. iron based alloys including ferritic/bainitic alloys,martensitic alloys, mixed martensitic/austenitic alloys, austenitic alloys, austenitic manganesealloys, primary austenite with austenite-carbide eutectic, primary carbides with austenite-carbide eutectic, nickel and cobalt based alloys and metal-ceramic materials, e.g. nickel orcobalt alloys with primary WC or W 2 C carbides [1-5]. All these materials are GMA surfacedon new or worn working surfaces of machine parts or elements to provide specific propertiesas abrasive and adhesive wear resistance, erosion resistance, corrosion resistance, heatresistance and many of theirs combinations [1-5]. It is reported that 50-60% of machineelements are worn due to abrasive wear which has many forms including low stress, highstress, dry or wet abrasion [1]. Abrasion resistance of GMA surfaced layers is a function of many factors but basic are chemical composition and microstructure which on other handdepend on GMA surfacing parameters.  312  A. Klimpel, L.A. Dobrza   ski, D. Janicki, A. Lisiecki  One of the primary criterions of determination optimal surfacing parameters, especially incase of surfacing of deposits that chemical composition strongly differs from base metalchemical composition, is to provide minimal dilution of the first layer of deposit:%100 ⋅+=  R BM  BM  F F F U  (dilution of the deposit by melted base metal)where: F BM – area of base metal melted, F R – area of reinforcement of the deposit (i.e.surfacing metal added).Dilution of the GMA metal cored wire surfaced deposit can be controlled from 10% toover 40%, depending on surfacing parameters (heat input of surfacing) and technique of surfacing [1,4]. Technique of GMA cored wire stringer bead multi-layers surfacing makespossible to achieve dilution of second layer of deposit in the range of 5-15% but efficiency of GMA surfacing is lowest. Another solutions providing significant reduction of dilution is lowheat input surfacing of stringer bead deposits and/or employing push technique of GMAsurfacing.Thus, abrasion resistance and hardness tests of GMA cored wire surfaced single layer (highdilution) and three-layer (low dilution) stringer bead deposits four iron and two cobalt basedhardfacing alloys were done and compared to HARDOX 400 steel abrasion resistance.2. ABRASION RESISTANCE TESTS To determine quantitatively the wear resistance of GMA surfaced single and three layerstringer bead deposits of four metal cored wires EnDOTec DO*13, EnDOTec DO*16,EnDOTec DO*31 and EnDOTec DO*329 iron based hardfacing alloys and EnDOTec DO*60and EnDOTec DO*70 cobalt based hardfacing alloys, Table 1, in comparison to HARDOX400 wear plate wear resistance, Table 2, the tests of abrasive wear type metal-ceramic wereconducted in accordance to standard ASTM G 65 - Standard Test Method for MeasuringAbrasion Using the Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel Apparatus. Procedure A of the ASTM G65standard was chosen.For all of abrasion resistance tests of GMA surfaced deposits of six metal cored wires,Table 1, the base plate was TStE 355 steel - DIN 17102 (S355NL - EN 10 113), 12 mm thick,by 120 [mm] wide and 150 [mm] in length. All GMA surfacing was done using stringerbeads, with no preheat and maximum interpass temperature of 250 o C for three layers deposits.GMA robotized surfacing parameters of single layer and three layer stringer bead depositswere selected in the range of the field of optimal GMA surfacing parameters, Table 1,providing almost the same value of heat input of surfacing. Robotized GMA metal cored wiresurfacing was conducted on the welding stand equipped with TotalArc 2 5000 CASTOLINprogrammable power source and SRV6 REIS welding robot.The 25 [mm] wide and 75 [mm] in length abrasion test coupons were cut from single andthree layers deposits and all test coupons were surface ground smooth and weighed to thenearest 0,0001 [g] as required by ASTM G65. Next abrasion resistance test was conducted.The force applied pressing the test coupon against the wheel was TL = 130[N] (test load - TL)and 6000 revolutions of the rubber wheel at 200 [rpm]. After the abrasion resistance test, thetest coupon was weighed at weight sensitivity 0,0001 [g]. Mass loss was reported directly andrelatively in comparison to the mass loss of the reference HARDOX 400 wear plate which ischosen as the reference material for all tested coupons of metal cored wires deposits, Table 2.Next the density of tested weld metal deposits and reference HARDOX 400 wear plate wasmeasured and abrasion tests results were reported as volume loss in cubic millimeters byconverting mass loss to volume loss as follows:Volume loss, (mm 3 ) = [mass loss (g) : density (g/cm 3 )] x 1000………(1)   Abrasion resistance of GMA metal cored wires surfaced deposits   313   Table 1.Classification, chemical composition, typical hardness and GMA surfacing parameters of thedeposits of six metal cored wires of test coupons for the abrasion resistance tests as perASTM G65 - Procedure A Surfacing parametersCouponsdesignationChemical composition and typical hardnessof the depositCurrent[A]Voltage[V]Heatinput[kJ/mm]EnDOTecDO*13 Fe + 0,45%C, 3,0%Si, 0,5%Mn, 9,5%Cr, 0,02%P, 0,01%S; 56- 58HRC  160-170 18,5-19,0 0,62EnDOTecDO*16 Fe + 0,3%C, 0,5%Si, 0,5%Mn, 0,02%P, 0,02%S, 2,5%Cr, 0,6%V,4,0%W; 48-50 HRC 160-170 19,0-19,5 0,63EnDOTecDO*31 Fe + 3,5%C, 1,2%Si, 0,8%Mn, 0,2%Ni, 30,0%Cr, 0,02%P, 0,01%S 55-60 HRC  160-170 22,0-22,5 0,68EnDOTecDO*329 Fe + 0,4%C, 0,5%Si, 0,7%Mn, 2,4%Cr, 0,5%Mo, 2,2%Co, 0,5%V,7,5%W; 50-55 HRC 140-150 19,5-20,0 0,58EnDOTecDO*60 Co + 1,0%C, 0,5%Si, 0,8%Mn, 0,01%S, 29,0%Cr,4,5%W, 3,0%Fe; 40-42 HRC  145-150 20,5-21,0 0,58EnDOTecDO*70 Co + 1,7%C, 0,5%Si, 0,8%Mn, 0,01%S, 29,0%Cr,4,5%W, 3,0%Fe; 48-50 HRC  140-145 19,5-20,0 0,60Remarks: Welding speed of surfacing 5,0 [mm/s], all tested metal cored wires diameter = 1,6 [mm]. Shielding gas97%Ar+2,5%CO 2 , flow rate 18,0 [l/min]. Wire stick out 22,0 [mm]. Table 2.Chemical composition wg %, of the materials used as the base plates for GMA surfacing of metal cored wire deposits for abrasion resistance tests and the reference HARDOX 400 wear plate Base and referencewear plateC Mn Si P S Cr Ni B Mo HBWS355NL 0,18 1,36 0,45 0,02 0,02 0,09 0,10 - - -HARDOX 400 0,14 1,6 0,7 0,025 0,010 0,50 0,25 0,004 0,25 370-430 1.04501.226201.226201.354201.284201.996352.836301.285901.296002.484001.924501.675102.71560 0,0100,0200,0300,0400,0500,0600,0700,0 One layerThree layersOne layerThree layersOne layerThree layersOne layerThree layersOne layerThree layersOne layerThree layersHARDOX400EnDoTec DO*13EnDoTec DO*16EnDoTec DO*31EnDoTec DO*329EnDoTec DO*60EnDoTec DO*70   RELATIVE ABRASION RESISTANCEDEPOSIT HARDNESS HV10 1,02,03,04,05,06,07,0    D   E   P   O   S   I   T   H   A   R   D   N   E   S   S   H   V   1   0 0    R   E   L   A   T   I   V   E   A   B   R   A   S   I   O   N   R   E   S   I   S   T   A   N   C   E CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE DEPOSIT 0.14%C, 0.7%Si,1.60% Mn, 0.025%P,0.010%S, 0.30%Cr,0.25%Ni, 0.25%Mo,0.004%BFe + 0.45%C, 3.0%Si,0.5%Mn, 9.5%Cr,0.02%P, 0.01%SFe + 0.3%C, 0.5%Si,0.5%Mn, 2.5%Cr,0.6%V, 4.0%W,0.02%P, 0.02%SFe + 3.5%C, 1.2%Si,0.8%Mn, 30.0%Cr,0.2%Ni, 0.02%P,0.01%SFe + 0.4%C, 0.5%Si,0.7%Mn, 2.4%Cr,0.5%Mo, 2.2%Co,0.5%V, 7.5%WCo + 1.0%C, 0.5%Si,0.8%Mn, 29.0%Cr,4.5%W, 3.0%Fe,0.01%SCo + 1.7%C, 1.0%Si,0.5%Mn, 29.0%Cr,0.1%Ni, 8.0%W, 2.5%Fe,0.01%SHR=450.0HR=508.20HR=508.20HR=311.11HR=328.13HR=319.10HR=222.61HR=460.94HR=465.12HR=161.29HR=234.38HR=305.39HR=206.64  Figure 1. The influence of the chemical composition of the GMA surfaced one and threelayers deposits of metal cored wires EnDOTec DO*13, EnDOTec DO*16, EnDOTecDO*031, EnDOTec DO*329, EnDOTec DO*60, EnDOTec DO*70, on the deposits abrasionresistance and surface hardness HV10 in relation to the relative abrasion resistance of HARDOX 400 wear plate  314  A. Klimpel, L.A. Dobrza   ski, D. Janicki, A. Lisiecki   3. CONCLUSIONS 1.   Low-stress abrasion resistance to metal-ceramic scratching by means of dry Ottawa quartzsand in accordance to standard ASTM G65 Procedure A of GMA surfaced single and threelayers stringer bead deposits of all tested metal cored wires, Table 1, is exceeding over1,22 to 2,83 times abrasion resistance of HARDOX 400 wear plate, Fig.. 1.2.   For all wires tested, but EnDOTec DO*31, three layers stringer bead deposits (lowdilution) present almost the same abrasion resistance as one layer deposits (higherdilution), what is very positive indication of technological features of wires, allowing toachieve expected rheological and mechanical properties just in the single layer deposit. Onthe other hand single layer deposit of EnDOTecDO*60 wire has over 20% higher abrasionresistance than three layers deposit, probably due to lower dilution of the third layerdeposit and as the result lower alloying of cobalt based deposit by iron of base metal.3.   The highest abrasion resistance is shown by metal cored wire EnDOTec DO*31 of highchromium cast iron structure and EnDOTec DO*70 cobalt based alloy deposits. Singlelayer of EnDOTec DO*31 deposit has 1,99 times higher and three layers deposit has 2,83times higher abrasion resistance in comparison to abrasion resistance of HARDOX 400wear plate as this wire is designated to increase metal-ceramic abrasion resistance [1].4.   It has been proved that there is very reliable correlation between abrasion resistance andchemical composition (microstructure) of the GMA surfaced single and three layersdeposits of all tested metal cored wires, Tables 1 and 2, Fig. 1, but on the other hand,hardness is very poor indicator of abrasion resistance, as the ratio of hardness to abrasionresistance (HR) which should be expected to be on the same level is much higher fordeposits showing lower abrasion resistance, for example HARDOX 400 wear plate showsHR = 450, EnDOTec DO*13 deposit shows HR = 620:1,22 = 508,2 but EnDOTec DO*70deposit HR = 510:2,67= 191 , Fig 1. REFERENCES 1.   Klimpel A.: Surfacing and thermal spraying. Technologies. WNT, W-wa. 2000.2.   Dobrzy   ski L. A.: Metal and material science, WNT, Warszawa, 2002.3.   Linnert G.E.: Welding Metallurgy Carbon and Alloy Steels. AWS. Miami, Florida, 1994.Ed. 4. Vol.1. Fundamentals. Chapter 6, s.628-633. Ed.4. Vol. 2. Technology. Chapter 10.s.100-107.4.   Welding Handbook. AWS, Miami, Florida, 1996. Ed. 8. Vol. 3. Materials andApplications. Pt.1. Chapter 9, s.213, s. 252-254.5.   Welding Handbook. AWS, Miami, Florida, 1998. Ed. 8. Vol.4. Materials andApplications. Pt.2. Chapter 7, s. 409-412.
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