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Abstract: 'A World of Synonyms: G'oəz (Æthiopic) the etymological & historical roots of the Old Ænglish Vocabulary & Grammar' (A Comparative Study), XVIIth International Conference of Ethiopian Studies

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  XVIIth International Conference of Ethiopian Studies,  Addis Ababa 2009, Philology   By Dn. Gebre ’EGZIAABHIR   JR - Published in  Abstracts  ICES17:2009:73, 74 (Edited) A World of Synonyms: Gə‘  o  əz (Æthiopic) the etymological & historical roots of the Old Ænglish Vocabulary & Grammar (A Comparative Study) Abstract Each language and every language family, all words or vocabularies throughout the entire world are quite readily explainable by means of  synonyms (alternate words), morphology  (change of definition and/or form), contractions  (vocalization) and mutilations  (devolution of structure). With this said, it thus does not only apply to lexicon , but also to  grammar.  In the  present paper cognation will be sought chiefly between the Old Ænglisc, or Germanic, grammar, and the Æthiopic; hence also the Semitic and Japhetic 1  (Indo-European or Indo-Germanic). As for the former (Old Ænglisc), it might be said to have its root forms preserved in the antient G‘o z or Æthiopic Language as will be shewn, and this is thus the premise of the  present study, namely, in order to shew cognation between the two, as will be evidenced herein. Accordingly all the words cited in this paper    have been carefully selected, in order that one may not suppose that any given word came from a mutually known literary source and is thus a borrowing (this is a real possibility, albeit slight). Vocabulary-Grammar:  As pertaining to grammar,  personal pronouns, gender, and  affixation  these will all be analysed in the paper for the languages in focus. In the cognation of Indo-Germanic families which will also be covered in the latter portion, our examples could be Classical Greek (CGrk.) αναζζ ω /anas  s | w  [anasso] - be    Lord, master   (masc.) and αναζζ α /anas  s | a  –     Lady, mistress  (fem.). As it is quite evident that this/these term(s) is/are cognate with Æthiopic (Æth.), viz. አንስ   / ’ans | w    –    man, husband, gentle-man, male  and አንስ   /’ans | t    –    woman, wife, female . In regard to the definition, it is easily perceivable warranting little comment, but as to the use of the labial and guttural terminations (i.e. CGrk. - o  and - a ), that of masculine  and of  feminine,  one may present Æth. -   / w (o), which is a standard (3 rd  person) masculine  suffix in Æthiopic/Semitic [and Hamitic 2 ], as is ኣ [ ሃ ]/ â   3 (or ት / t ) for that of the  feminine ; the nouns and use of gender are to be observed here. Notice other kinship terms as: CGrk.    υι ω /hi| w  (eiho)  –     son, male child   (Span. hij| o  [eih o ] -  son ; hij| a  [eh a ] - daughter  ); as cognate with Æth. እኅ   / ’aәḫ | w    –    brother  , እኅ|   / ’aәḫe t    –     sister  . When one looks at Classical Greek words and Primitives he will be struck by not few lexical terms and  1 Atermthatisseldomused,yet,asvalidasSemiticandHamiticinsrcinandusage. 2 Ancient  Æ gyptian  –  f ThirdPersonMasculinePronoun(for- w ) 3 NoticeastheCGk.-   thefinalfemininepersonalinflexion-   in ቤታ /bît | â herhouse (cf.O Æ ng.b î d)  XVIIth International Conference of Ethiopian Studies,  Addis Ababa 2009, Philology   By Dn. Gebre ’EGZIAABHIR   JR - Published in  Abstracts  ICES17:2009:73, 74 (Edited) grammatical features as just cited, and furthermore in other word groupings besides ‘ kinship ’ , whence ψαλλω/[p]sallo –     praise, sing psalm  and ጸለየ/ salaya (ጸሎት)  prayer, (praise), πνεω/pnew ( for fneo)  –    to breathe, to blow (spirit) and ነፍሀ/ nafh|a  –  breathe, blow ; the latter with ‘ metathesis’  . Contraction (Morphology): It will also become apparent that all the dialects/languages of the world are in a state of devolution, not evolution . Thus for child dialects (e.g. Spanish, Italian and Portuguese from Latin) 4  contractions play a major role in the devolutionary  process of child-(or sister)-dialects, whence there are so many child languages that are seemingly unintelligible (due to this decay), yet we know their source, as in the case of the multiple Indian dialects that are derived from Sanskrit (  Hindi etc.), or the many African languages from Kushitic that can be traced back to a common source. Furthermore in the European continent it is no less the case as is well known, of which Greek   formally was looked to as a father, thus this extensive paper will also examine these points. Take a contemporary example, in the received Greek word: kudos  (CGrk. κυδος )  –     glory ,  praise , honour  , which is contracted to kudo 5  ,  the reason for the contraction  (back forming) is due to a mistaken plural s , which in fact is a true radical; the actual root of the word is comparable to ቅዱስ/ qә dus G‘o z.  –    holy, hallowed, [lit. separated one/thing] . Moreover once contracted to kudo , along with its slight change of definition, it would (if we did not know its derivation)  become very difficult to determine the source of the term? and then one might philosophises,  perhaps logically, that the root of this word is of a different language other than Greek (European), and thus warrants need to be investigated, and when no cognates were found for kudo each might perhaps come to his conclusion of its srcin or nature, perhaps stating that even the simple babbling of a child (onomatopoeia) brought forth the word; similarly the  pseudo form *keu is erroneously assigned to it. Likewise in Æthiopic, we have numerous contractions from Gә‘ o әz, for example, in such numerical words as ሠለስቱ   śalәs|tu –    three  (cf. ሣልስት / ś âlәs|t –    third  ) which became ሶስት /sûs|t and sound-shifts as found in ስድሳ  -  sixty  (cf. ስድስ /sәds & ስሱ /sәs|u -  six ), which became ስልሳ  sls|â -  sixty  (cf. ስድስት / sds|t -  six ) respectively, this has occurred in certain cases in Amharinya a child-dialect   of G ‘ oz, thus Amharic will also be used as a catalyst synonymous to the many systematic contractions, mutilations and  4 AndasthepaperdealsprimarilywiththeOld Æ nglish,aTeutoniclanguage,theexamplecouldbeSwedish,NorwegianandDanishfromOldNorsk. 5 SimilarlyobservethatNorwegian gi  give iscontractedandmutilatedfromOldNorsk/OIce. gif | a(Goth.gib | an) togive  ;withsyncopationoffinallabial( Æ th. ውሂብ / wēib  togive  ;cf.Heb.y âēab  give  )  XVIIth International Conference of Ethiopian Studies,  Addis Ababa 2009, Philology   By Dn. Gebre ’EGZIAABHIR   JR - Published in  Abstracts  ICES17:2009:73, 74 (Edited) mutations found chiefly in Old Ænglisc as for this study, but also in terms from Latin (Greek etc.,), some of which were borrow in the former language both early and late. Proto-Language:  Moreover if it can be shown, that the three great language families of Semitic, Hamitic (African languages, viz. Kushitic &c), and Japhetic are related cognate families, and if it can be shewn that the chiefly preserve and chief among them is Semitic, then we must also look to disregard all these false Proto- Etymologies which are readily marked by an *asterisks; as in the so-called Indo-European (Indo-Germanic) type. Observe for example the numeral  six (OÆng. siex)  , which has a pseudo proto-etymology of    “*sweks” , and to substantiate that this is not the organic root form and etymon, one ought to note that there is no real witness of the k   in this numeral throughout the so-called Indo-European languages as evidenced hereafter  6 ; Æth. sds , sәs | u  –     six : Heb. š  î  š ; Akk. šeš | t, šediš | tu -  sixty ; ‘ Arab. sitt ; Skt. šaš , šad , šat    –     sixth , šadas |a  -sixteen ; Per. śaś ; Lat. sex  (Span. seis ); AS. siex ; ONors.  sex ; (Dan. sex ; Swed. sex ); Lith. szesz| i; Wel. ćweć  and CGrk. hex ; Hung. hat  &c. It is the same case for  seven  (OÆng. sibu|n > seofo|n) which has the etymon as observed in Æthiopic as ሰብዐ/ sab‘ o|a (and ሰባዕቱ/ sabâ ‘oa| tu -  seven 7  ). Synonyms:  Finally the paper will endeavour to shew that synonyms play a major role within a single language let alone a language family, consequently in all languages. In fact outside of contraction and grammar it might be said that synonyms are a major cause of the division of languages as afore cited (e.g. ψαλλω  means  praise whereas ጸለየ   means  prayer and while αναζζω  means  Lord, master    አንስው  means man ), hence the present title, a world of synonyms . [ This rather lengthy  Abstract   (edited) accompanies a very lengthy  Paper   that extended to the maximum length a paper could be. For it covered most aspects of grammar within a given language, and also contains an extensive lexical portion, thus the paper  A World of Synonyms  constitutes  A Short Comparative Grammar of Æthiopic and Old Ænglish ; albeit that Indo-Germanic cognates are cited. And therefore it needed a lengthy abstract in order to draw out some of the topics to be covered and examples to evidence such a comparison in a time (2009) when no such serious analysis of the subject was being done in historical linguistics using the comparative method or comparative philology . In their present form, it is hoped that the Abstract and Paper that accompanies it is free from human error, typos and the like. ]  6 AlthoughTocharianAandBwitnessamedial k  (ṣäkandṣkas six  )itisnonethelessamorphedsound-shiftfrom   (Æth.sds six,  Assy.sudus |û  sixfold &c.).Furthermorethe w isonlyattestedinWelsh ćweć andZendqswas,howevertheinitialradicalsshewashiftthatimpactsthemedial. 7  ሳብዕት /sâ b’a|ә t- seventh  
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