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Abstract and sub-naturalistic prehistoric rock art in the Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro region of Portugal: the case study of the Passadeiro rock shelter – Palaçoulo (Miranda do Douro)

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  Recorded Places, Experienced Places The Holocene rock art of the Iberian Atlantic north-westEdited by Ana M.S. Bettencourt Manuel Santos Estevez Hugo A. Sampaio Daniela Cardoso BAR International Series 2878 2017  Published in  by  BAR Publishing, Oxford BAR International Series   Recorded Places, Experienced Places      © The editors and contributors severally © LabPT - University of Minho     Cova da Bruxa, Muros (image, Josefa Rey Castiñeira). The Authors’ moral rights under the  UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act are hereby expressly asserted. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be copied, reproduced, stored, sold, distributed, scanned, saved in any form of digital format or transmitted in any form digitally, without the written permission of the Publisher.Printed in EnglandBAR titles are available from: BAR Publishing   Banbury Rd, Oxford,  ,    info@barpublishing.com   + ()   + ()   www.barpublishing.com  v Contents List of figures and tables .....................................................................................................................................................ixRecorded places, experienced places. Some remarks .......................................................................................................1 1. Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................................12. The book structure .........................................................................................................................................................1 Part 1: Concepts and tools to study rock artChapter 1. Contribution of the magical and religious geography to an anthropology of space. A case study inthe north-west of Portugal (Álvaro Campelo) ...................................................................................................................7 1. Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................................72. An anthropology of space..............................................................................................................................................83. The magical and symbolic geography .........................................................................................................................104. The symbolic space of the Portuguese north-west ......................................................................................................124.1 Mountains and boulders .......................................................................................................................................134.2 Springs and water sources ....................................................................................................................................144.3 Forests and places of passage ...............................................................................................................................145. Conclusion...................................................................................................................................................................15 Chapter 2. CVARN – Rock Art Virtual Corpus of North-Western Portugal. A multimedia tool to investigateand describe Post-Palaeolithic rock art (Ana M.S. Bettencourt, Emilio Abad-Vidal and Alda Rodrigues) .............19 1. Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................192. The database ................................................................................................................................................................203. CVARN as a social tool ...............................................................................................................................................214. CVARN as a scientic tool .........................................................................................................................................225. Final considerations ....................................................................................................................................................25 Part 2: From sub-naturalistic to Schematic rock art tradition Chapter 3. Abstract and sub-naturalistic prehistoric rock art in the Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro region of Portugal: the case study of the Passadeiro rock shelter – Palaçoulo (Miranda do Douro)(Maria de Jesus Sanches and Joana Castro Teixeira) ....................................................................................................29 1. Introduction and objectives .........................................................................................................................................291.1 Brief recap of ‘devil claw’ historiography ...........................................................................................................291.2 The Passadeiro rock shelter ..................................................................................................................................311.3 Objectives .............................................................................................................................................................312. Decoding gestures in Passadeiro’s panel 1..................................................................................................................312.1 Motifs and techniques ..........................................................................................................................................312.2 Figurative stratigraphy .........................................................................................................................................322.3 Temporal gesture hypothesis ................................................................................................................................323. Abstract and sub-naturalistic motifs in Passadeiro: approaching the chronological question ....................................344. Discussion and nal remarks ......................................................................................................................................35 Chapter 4. The Lamelas rock art site as a fundamental contributor to the knowledge of post-glacier art innorth-western Iberia (Maria de Jesus Sanches and Nuno Coelho Gomes) ..................................................................39 1. The rock art site of Lamelas: history of its research and objectives ...........................................................................392. Geographic location and synthetic description of Lamelas rock art site ....................................................................403. Recording of the site ...................................................................................................................................................414. Formal and stratigraphic analysis of Rock A ..............................................................................................................424.1 The panels .............................................................................................................................................................424.2 Recording techniques and gurative stratigraphy ................................................................................................444.3 Motifs and compositions ......................................................................................................................................445. Closing remarks ..........................................................................................................................................................46  vi  Recorded Places, Experienced Places Chapter 5. Rock art of the upper Támega Valley (Galicia, Spain)(Beatriz Comendador Rey and Félix González Insua) ...................................................................................................49 1. Presentation of the study area .....................................................................................................................................491.1 Physical description of the region ........................................................................................................................491.2 Background ..........................................................................................................................................................491.3 Description of the archaeological actions and methodologies applied ................................................................512. Contextualisation of prehistoric rock art .....................................................................................................................513. Main rock art sites .......................................................................................................................................................523.1 Group of As Cuncas/As Ferradas (Covas Rubias, Santa Baia parish, Vences, Monterrei) ..................................523.2 Group of Penedo das Pisadiñas and Monte Lastredo (Laza) GA32039001 .........................................................543.3 Group of Penedo do Muro (Sandín, Monterrei, Ourense) GA32050002 .............................................................564. Comparative analysis ..................................................................................................................................................565. Schematic art or Schematic arts? ................................................................................................................................60 Chapter 6. Rock art places and contexts at Gralheira Massif (central north-west Portugal): a general overview(António Manuel S.P. Silva, Joana N. Leite, Paulo A.P. Lemos and Manuel Valério Figueiredo) .................................63 1. Presentation .................................................................................................................................................................632. The nucleus of Escariz ................................................................................................................................................642.1 The tombs of Aliviada and Alagoas .....................................................................................................................652.1.1 Dolmen of Aliviada 1 ...................................................................................................................................652.1.2 Alagoas 1 and Alagoas 4 ...............................................................................................................................662.2 Selada’s rock carvings ..........................................................................................................................................673. The nucleus of the lower Paiva River basin ................................................................................................................683.1 Fraga Marcada ......................................................................................................................................................693.2 Fraga dos Sete Riscos ...........................................................................................................................................703.3 Cando’s carved stone ............................................................................................................................................703.4 Fraga da Ferradura................................................................................................................................................713.5 Marca dos Mouros ................................................................................................................................................724. Final remarks ...............................................................................................................................................................73 Part 3: Atlantic tradition rock art Chapter 7. Galician petroglyphs: distribution patterns in the province of A Coruña (north-west Spain)(Alia Vázquez Martínez, Carlos Rodríguez-Rellán and Ramón Fábregas Valcarce) ..................................................79 1. Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................792. Methodology and materials .........................................................................................................................................803. Results .........................................................................................................................................................................804. Conclusions .................................................................................................................................................................84 Chapter 8. The rock engravings of Cova da Bruxa (Galicia, north-west Iberia). A place of reiterated hunting scenes (Josefa Rey Castiñeira, Manuel Antonio Franco Fernández and Jorge Juan Eiroa) ......................................87 1. Archaeological intervention ........................................................................................................................................872. Repeated representation of hunting .............................................................................................................................893. Are these really depictions of hunting? .......................................................................................................................893.1 Scene 1: stalking scene? .......................................................................................................................................913.2 Scene 2: capture of a 10-point stag with net, during the rutting season, in a clearing? .......................................923.3 Scene 3: a stalking scene in the woods or by the water? ......................................................................................933.4 Scene 4: a huntsman and his hound behind the chosen prey? ..............................................................................933.5 Scene 5: a herd of deer; and the ruse of an old deer? ...........................................................................................944. Why the hunting theme and not other types of scenes? ..............................................................................................955. Final conclusions .........................................................................................................................................................96 Chapter 9. The Atlantic rock art of Monte Eiró (Penhalonga, Marco de Canaveses, north-west Portugal).New background to its contextualisation (Luís Sousa) ...................................................................................................99 1. Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................992. Physical, environmental and archaeological context ..................................................................................................993. Rock art nucleuses.....................................................................................................................................................1013.1   Monte Eiró I .......................................................................................................................................................1013.2   Monte Eiró II ......................................................................................................................................................1023.3   Monte Eiró III .....................................................................................................................................................102  vii Contents 3.4   Monte Eiró IV ....................................................................................................................................................1023.5   Monte Eiró V ......................................................................................................................................................1054. Final considerations ..................................................................................................................................................106 Chapter 10. Respecting the ancestors? Iron Age life and 4th/3rd millennia BCE rock art within the hillfort of Briteiros (north-west Portugal) (Daniela Cardoso, Ana M.S. Bettencourt and George H. Nash)............................109 1. Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................................1092. The data .....................................................................................................................................................................1103. The Atlantic rock art of Mount São Romão’s ...........................................................................................................1114. The Atlantic rock art of Mount São Romão and the Iron Age/Roman period inhabitants of the Briteiros hillfort...1125. Towards an interpretative outcome ...........................................................................................................................116 Part 4: Other styles Chapter 11. Post-Palaeolithic rock art of north-western Portugal: an approach (Ana M.S. Bettencourt) .............123 1. Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................................1232. Atlantic rock art .........................................................................................................................................................1243. Open-air Schematic rock art and its heterogeneity ...................................................................................................1284. Other styles? ..............................................................................................................................................................1324.1 Weapons .............................................................................................................................................................1324.2 ‘Tools’ .................................................................................................................................................................1354.3 Internally segmented circles ...............................................................................................................................1354.4 Boat like-motifs ..................................................................................................................................................1364.5 Subnaturalist and Schematic quadrupeds ...........................................................................................................1374.6 Palettes and similar objects ................................................................................................................................1404.7 Podomorphs ........................................................................................................................................................1405. Final considerations ..................................................................................................................................................141 Chapter 12. Shape and meaning: engraved weapons as materialisations of the Calcolithic/Early Bronze Age cosmogony in north-west Iberia (Manuel Santos-Estévez, Ana M.S. Bettencourt, Hugo A. Sampaio,Cláudio Brochado and Gonçalo Ferreira) .....................................................................................................................151 1. Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................................1512. Methodology .............................................................................................................................................................1523. Engraved weapons in the south-west of Galicia and north-west of Portugal ...........................................................1533.1 Auga da Laxe and Pedra das Procesións (Gondomar) .......................................................................................1533.2 As Chanciñas (A Cañiza) ....................................................................................................................................1543.3 Costa da Areira 1 and 2 (Valença) ......................................................................................................................1563.4 Monte da Laje (Valença) ....................................................................................................................................1583.5 Santo Adrião 1 (Caminha) ..................................................................................................................................1593.6 Galga (Ponte de Lima) .......................................................................................................................................1603.7 Chã da Laje das Cruzes 1 (Barcelos)..................................................................................................................1614. Places with engraved weapons: discussion of the results .........................................................................................1624.1 Places with weapons in active positions.............................................................................................................1624.2 Places with weapons in passive positions ..........................................................................................................1634.3 Places engraved with weapons: spaces, shapes and meanings ...........................................................................163 Chapter 13. Where do the horses run? A dialogue between signs and matter in the rock carvings of Fornelos (Viana do Castelo, north-west Portugal) (Ana M.S. Bettencourt, Isabel S. Silva, M. Isabel C. Alves,Pedro P. Simões and Manuel Santos-Estevéz) ...............................................................................................................167 1. Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................................1672. Administrative location, physical and archaeological context ..................................................................................1693. The engraved locus ...................................................................................................................................................1704. The carvings ..............................................................................................................................................................1715. Interpretations ...........................................................................................................................................................172 Chapter 14. Pena Furada sanctuary: astronomical and ritual archaeological aspects (Coirós, A Corunha, Galiza)(Antón Fernández Malde) ...............................................................................................................................................179 1. Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................................1792. Method ......................................................................................................................................................................1802.1 Criteria of the programme of observations.........................................................................................................181
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