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‫اﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺪ ﷲ وﺣﺪه واﻟﺼﻼة واﻟﺴﻼم ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻧﺒﻲ ﺑﻌﺪه ﻧﺒﯿﻨﺎ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﯿﮫ أﻓﻀﻞ اﻟﺼﻼة وأﺗﻢ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫إﻟﻰ ﻗﺎرئ ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮة ‪...‬‬ ‫ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮة ﺷﺨﺼﯿﺔ وﻟﯿﺴﺖ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ اﻹﻋﻼﻣﻲ اﻟﺮﺑﺤﻲ ) وﻣﻌﺪ ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮة واﻷﺳﻤﺎء اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮد( ﯾﺨﻠﻮن ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﯿﺘﮭﻢ أﻣﺎم اﷲ وﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ أﻣﺎم وﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻹﻋﻼم أو اﻟﺠﮭﺎت ذات اﻟﻄﺎﺑﻊ اﻹﻋﻼﻣﻲ ﻓﻲ أي ﺣﻘﻮق ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺴﻮء اﺳﺘﺨﺪام ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮة وﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ أﺟﻞ اﻟﻔﺴﺢ‬ ‫اﻹﻋﻼﻣﻲ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎرف ﻋﻠﯿﮫ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت اﻟﻨﺸﺮ اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺬﻛﺮة ﺷﺨﺼﯿﺔ واﻟﻐﺮض ﻣﻨﮭﺎ اﻟﻤﺴﺎھﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺸﺮ ووﺿﻊ اﻷﺳﺎﺳﺎت ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮاﻛﯿﺐ اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ اﻷﻛﺎدﯾﻤﯿﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﻼب
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       داﺪﻋإ    ﺔﯾﺰﯿﻠﺠﻧﻻا    ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ    ﺔﯿﻤﯾدﺎﻛﻷا    ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻜﻟا    ﺲﺳأ   /  ﻲﺑﺮﺤﻟا    فاﻮﻧ    ﻦﺑ    ﺪﻟﺎﺧ  1 ﺔﻣﺪﻘﻤﻟا :  ﻢﻠﺴﺘﻟا   ﻢﺗأو   ةﻼﺼﻟا   ﻞﻀﻓأ   ﮫﯿﻠﻋ   ﺪﻤﺤﻣ   ﺎﻨﯿﺒﻧ   هﺪﻌﺑ   ﻲﺒﻧ   ﻻ   ﻦﻣ   ﻰﻠﻋ   مﻼﺴﻟاو   ةﻼﺼﻟاو   هﺪﺣو   ﷲ   ﺪﻤﺤﻟا .  ةﺮﻛﺬﻤﻟا   هﺬھ   ئرﺎﻗ   ﻰﻟإ ...  ﻲﺤﺑﺮﻟا   ﻲﻣﻼﻋﻹا   ﺮﺸﻨﻠﻟ   ﺖﺴﯿﻟو   ﺔﯿﺼﺨﺷ   ةﺮﻛﺬﻤﻟا   هﺬھ ) ءﺎﻤﺳﻷاو   ةﺮﻛﺬﻤﻟا   هﺬھ   ﺪﻌﻣودﺮﺗ   ﻲﺘﻟا  ( ﻦﻣو   ﷲا   مﺎﻣأ   ﻢﮭﺘﯿﻟﻮﺌﺴﻣ   نﻮﻠﺨﯾ   ﺢﺴﻔﻟا   ﻞﺟأ   ﻦﻣ   ﻚﻟﺬﻛو   ةﺮﻛﺬﻤﻟا   هﺬھ   ماﺪﺨﺘﺳا   ءﻮﺴﺑ   ﻖﻠﻌﺘﺗ   قﻮﻘﺣ   يأ   ﻲﻓ   ﻲﻣﻼﻋﻹا   ﻊﺑﺎﻄﻟا   تاذ   تﺎﮭﺠﻟا   وأ   مﻼﻋﻹا   ﻞﺋﺎﺳو   مﺎﻣأ   ﻢﺛﻲﻧوﺮﺘﻜﻟﻻا   ﺮﺸﻨﻟا   تﺎﯿﻠﻤﻋ   ﻲﻓ   ﮫﯿﻠﻋ   فرﺎﻌﺘﻤﻟا   ﻲﻣﻼﻋﻹا .   ﺿوو   ﺮﺸﻧ   ﻲﻓ   ﺔﻤھﺎﺴﻤﻟا   ﺎﮭﻨﻣ   ضﺮﻐﻟاو   ﺔﯿﺼﺨﺷ   ةﺮﻛﺬﻤﻟا   هﺬھ   ﻲﻓ   بﺮﻌﻟا   بﻼﻄﻠﻟ   ﺔﯿﻤﯾدﺎﻛﻷا   ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻜﻟا   ﺐﯿﻛاﺮﺗ   ﻲﻓ   تﺎﺳﺎﺳﻷا   ﻊ    نأ   ﺔﻄﯾﺮﺷ   قﻮﻘﺣ   ﺔﯾأ   نود   ﺎھﺮﺸﻧو   ﺎﮭﻟواﺪﺘﺑ   ﺢﻤﺴﯾ   ةﺮﻛﺬﻤﻟا   هﺬھ   ﺪﻌﻣو   ﺔﯿﺑﺮﻐﻟا   وأ   ﺔﯿﺑﺮﻌﻟا   لوﺪﻟا   ﻲﻓ   ءاﻮﺳ   تﺎﻌﻣﺎﺠﻟاو   تﺎﯿﻠﻜﻟا ﺄﺑ   ﺎﮭﻨﯾﺰﺨﺗ   وأ   ﺎﮭﻣاﺪﺨﺘﺳا   ةدﺎﻋإ   وأ   ﺎﮭﻣاﺪﺨﺘﺳا   ﻦﻣ   ﺔﯿﺤﺑﺮﻟا   ةدﺎﻔﺘﺳﻻا   نودو   ﺲﯿﺋﺮﻟا   رﺪﺼﻤﻠﻟ   رﺎﺸﯾﺖﻧﺎﻛ   ﺔﻘﯾﺮﻃ   ي .  هﺪﺣو   ﷲ   ﻖﻠﻄﻤﻟا   لﺎﻤﻜﻟا،ﻮﻠﻤﺤﯾ   ﻻأ   ةﺮﻛﺬﻤﻟا   هﺬھ   نﻮﺋﺮﻘﯾ   ﻦﯾﺬﻟا   ﻦﻣ   ﻰﻨﻤﺗأواﺞﺘﻨﺗ   تﺎﻌﺒﺗ   يأ   ﺎﮭﯿﻓ   تدرو   ﻲﺘﻟا   ءﺎﻤﺳﻷا   وأ   ﺎھﺪﻌﻣ   ﺎﮭﺗءاﺮﻗ   ﻦﻋ . ﺪﻗ   ﺎﻣﺎﻋ   ارﺎﯿﻌﻣ   ﺖﻌﺿو   ﻦﻜﻟو   ﻚﯾﺪﻟ   ﺔﻐﻠﻟا   ﺪﮭﻌﻣ   وأ   ﻚﺘﻌﻣﺎﺟ   ﻲﻓ   ﻚﯾﺪﻟ   سرﺪﯾ   ﺎﻣ   ﻦﻋ   ﺎﻣ   ﺎﻋﻮﻧ   ﻒ  ﻠﺘﺨﺗ   ﺪﻗ   ةﺮﻛﺬﻤﻟا   هﺬﮭﻓﮫﻨﻣ   ﺪﯿﻔﺘﺴﯾﷲا   ﻖﯿﻓﻮﺗ   ﺪﻌﺑ   ﺮﯿ  ﺜ  ﻜﻟا   ،ﺮﺧﻷ   ﺺ  ﺨﺷ   ﻦﻣ   ﻚﻟﺬﻛو   ى ﺮﺧأ   ﻰﻟإ   ﺔﻟود   ﻦﻣو   ﺮﺧ ﻵ   ﺪﮭﻌﻣ   ﻦﻣ   ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻤﻟا   ﻒ  ﻠﺘﺨﺗ   ﺚ  ﯿﺣ   ﻦﯿﺘﯿﺋﺰﺟ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ةﺮﻛﺬﻤﻟا   يﻮﺘﺤﺗ : ١ ( ﺾ  ﻌﺑ   ﺖﻨﻤﻀﺗ   ﺪﻗو   ﺔﻐﻠﻟا   ﺪﻋاﻮﻘﺑ   مﺎﻤﻟإ   ﻢﮭﯾﺪﻟ   ﻦﯾﺬﻠﻟ   اﺪﺟ   ةﺪﯿﻔﻣ   ﺔﯿﺋﺰﺟ   ﻲھو   ﺔﯾﺰﯿﻠﺠﻧﻻا   ﺔﻐﻠﻟا   ﺪﻋاﻮﻘﻟ   ﮫﻌﺟاﺮﻤﺑ   ﻖﻠﻌﺘﺗ   ﺔﯿﺋﺰﺟ ﻠﻟا   ﺪﻋاﻮﻗ   ﺐﯾﺮ  ﻏ   وأ   ﮫﺑﺎﺸﺘﻤﻟاﺔﯾﺰﯿﻠﺠﻧﻻا   ﺔﻐ . ٢ ( هﺬﮭﺑ   ﻖﺤﻟ   ﺪﻗو   ﺔﯾﺰﯿﻠﺠﻧﻻا   ﮫﻐﻟﺎﺑ   ﺔﯿﻤﯾدﺎﻛﻷا   ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻜﻟا   ﻦﻋ   ةﺮﻜﻓ   يأ   ﮫﯾﺪﻟ   ﺲﯿﻟ   ﻦﻤﻟ   ﺔﯿﺋﺰﺟ   ﻲھو   ﺔﯿﻤﯾدﺎﻛﻷا   ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻜﻟا   ﺔﯿﺋﺰﺟﺎﯿﻠﻌﻟا   تﺎﺳارﺪﻟا   ﺔﻠﺣﺮﻣ   بﻼﻄﻟ   ﻲﻤﯾدﺎﻛﻷا   ﺚ  ﺤﺒﻟا   ﺔﯿﺋﺰﺟ   ﺔﯿﺋﺰﺠﻟا .  ةﺮﻛﺬﻤﻟا   هﺬھ   ﻲﻓ   ﻦﯿﻤھﺎﺴﻤﻠﻟ   ﺮﯾﺪﻘﺗو   ﺮﻜﺷ :  خ ﻷا  /  ﺮﻀﺨﻟا   ﺪﻤﺤﻣ   ﻦﻤﺣﺮﻟاﺪﺒﻋ ) ﺐﻟﺎﻃﺮﺸﻨﻟا   ﺖﻗو   ﺮﯿﺘﺴﺟﺎﻤﻟا   ﺔﻠﺣﺮﻣ  ( ح ﺮﺷ   ﻲﻓ   ﻲﻟ   ةﺮﯿﺒﻜﻟا   ﮫﺗﺪﻋﺎﺴﻤﻟ   ﺮﻜﺸﻟﺎﺑ   ﮫﺼﺧا   يﺬﻟاو   ﻞﯿﺻﺎﻔﺘﻟا   ﺾ  ﻌﺒﺑ   ﻖﻠﻌﺘﯾ   ﺎﻤﯿﻓ   تﻻﺎﻘﻤﻠﻟ   ﺔﯿﻤﯾدﺎﻛﻷا   ﻰﻨﺒﻟا   ﺢﯿﺿﻮﺗو .  خ ﻷا  /  ﻲﺟاﻮﺧ   ﮫﻃ ) ﺮﺸﻨﻟا   ﺖﻗو   ﺮﯿﺘﺴﺟﺎﻤﻟا   ﺔﻠﺣﺮﻣ   ﺐﻟﺎﻃ ( ﺔﻐﻠﻟا   ﺔﺳارد   ءﺎﻨﺛأ   ﻲﺑ   ﺔﺻﺎﺨﻟا   ةﺮﻛﺬﻤﻟا   هﺬﮭﻟ   يﺮﺸﻧ   ةﺮﻜﻔﺑ   ﺐﺣر   يﺬﻟاوﻰﻠﻋ   ةوﻼﻋﺔﻐﻠﻟا   ﺔﻠﺣﺮﻣ   ﺔﺳارد   ﻦﻣ   ءﺎﮭﺘﻧﻻا   ﻞﺒﻗ   ﺎﮭﺒﺘﻛ   ﻲﺘﻟا   ﮫﺗاﺮﻘﻓ   ى ﺪﺣإ   ح ﺮﺸﺑ   ﻲﻟ   ح ﺎﻤﺴﻟا   ﻲﻓ   ﮫﺘﻤھﺎﺴﻣ  .  خ ﻷا   /  يﺮﻤﺸﻟا   ﻖﯿﺘﻋ   ﻲﺿار ) ﺮﺸﻨﻟا   ﺖﻗو   ﺮﯿﺘﺴﺟﺎﻤﻟا   ﺔﻠﺣﺮﻣ   ﺐﻟﺎﻃ ( ﺚ  ﯿﺣ   ﻦﻣ   تﺎﯿﺋﺰﺟ   ﻦﻣ   ﮫﺘﺣﺮﻃ   ﺎﻤﻟ   ةﺪﻗﺎﻨﻟا   ﮫﺗﺎ  ﻈ  ﺣﻼﻣ   ﻰﻠﻋ ﻐﻠﻟا   ﺪﻋاﻮﻗ   ﺔﻌﺟاﺮﻤﺑ   ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﻤﻟا   تﺎﯿﺋﺰﺠﻟا   ﻦﻣ   ﺮﯿ  ﺜ  ﻛ   ﻰﻠﻋ   تﺎﻘﯿﻠﻌﺘﻟا   ﺾ  ﻌﺑ   ةﺮﻛﺬﻤﻟا   هﺬھ   تﺎﺤﻔﺻو   ﺔ .  خ ﻷا  /  ةﺮﻛﺬﻤﻟا   ﺔﮭﺟاو   ﻢﯿﻤﺼﺗ   هءاﺪھإ   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻲﻌﯿﻗﺮﻟا   ﺰﯾﺰﻌﻟاﺪﺒﻋ   ﻦﺑ   ﻒ  ﯾﺎﻧ   خ ﻷا  /  ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ   ﻲﻓ   ﻲﺑﺮﺤﻟا   يرﺎﺸﻣ )Waterloo( ﻲﻟ   ﻞﺻاﻮﺘﻤﻟا   ﮫﻤﻋد   ﻰﻠﻋ   اﺪﻨﻜﺑ . ﻲﻓ   ءﺎﻗﺪﺻﻷا   ﻦﻣ   ﺮﯿ  ﺜ  ﻜﻟا   ﺮﻜﺷ   ﻲﻨﺗﻮﻔﯾ   ﻻو   ﻢﮭﻤﻋد   ﻰﻠﻋ   ﻢﮭﺋﺎﻤﺳأ   ﺮﻛذ   مﺪﻋ   اﻮﻨﺴﺤﺘﺳا   ﻦﯾﺬﻟا   ﺎﯿﻧﺎﻄﯾﺮﺑو   ﺎﻜﯾﺮﻣأﺔﯿﻤﯾدﺎﻛﻷا   ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻜﻟا   لﻮﺣ   ﻲﺘﻠﺌﺳأ   ﻦﻣ   ﺮﯿ  ﺜ  ﻛ   ﻲﻓ   ﻲﻟ   ﻞﺻاﻮﺘﻤﻟا   ﻢﻠﻌﻟا   ﺐﻟﺎﻃ   ﺎﮭﻨﻣ   ﻊﻔﺘﻨﯾ   ةرﻮﺼﺑ   ةﺮﻛﺬﻤﻟا   هﺬھ   ج ﺮﺨﺗ   ﺚ  ﯿﺤﺑ   ﺔﯾﺰﯿﻠﺠﻧﻻا   ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ .  ةﺮﻛﺬﻤﻟا   هﺬھ   ةدﺎﯾﺰﻟ   ﺔﻤھﺎﺴﻣ   وأ   ح اﺮﺘﻗا   يﺄﺑ   ﺐﺣﺮﯾ   ةﺮﻛﺬﻤﻟا   هﺬھ   ﺪﻌﻣ . ﻖﯿﻓﻮﺘﻟا   ﷲﺎﺑو  ))) ﺐﯿﻐﻟا   ﺮﮭ  ﻇ   ﻲﻓ   ءﺎﻋﺪﻟا   ﻦﻣ   ﺎﻧﻮﺴﻨﺗ   ﻻ (((  ١٦  /  ٣  /  ١٤٢٩ ـ  ھ   ﻲﺑﺮﺤﻟا   فاﻮﻧ   ﻦﺑ   ﺪﻟﺎﺧ  Kh9lid@Yahoo.com      داﺪﻋإ    ﺔﯾﺰﯿﻠﺠﻧﻻا    ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ    ﺔﯿﻤﯾدﺎﻛﻷا    ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻜﻟا    ﺲﺳأ   /  ﻲﺑﺮﺤﻟا    فاﻮﻧ    ﻦﺑ    ﺪﻟﺎﺧ  2 Be careful! Countable and uncountable    o There  is  a lot of  (water , research)  o There  are  a lot of (books , apples)   o Drinking  a lot of water  is  very important  o Reading  a lot of research papers  is  useful for the mind  o Reading  a lot of books  is  useful for the mind  o The advantages  of water  are  … o A lot of  water    is  used for drinking (passive) o A lot of  apples    are  eaten (passive) Article ( A . An )  Use with: Singular nouns or ( a singular noun)  o It is  a  good essay /How do you write  a  good essay?  o It is  an  essay /How do you write  an  essay?  o The government needs  a  couple of years to develop those projects  o A few friends (positive meaning has/have some friends) /few friends (Negative meaning  –  almost no friends-) o A positive role can be taken from the internet  o An  important idea is suggested to solve the problem  o I am going to send you  an  SMS. o A university is a good place for studying. o If  a  student needs some    help ,he or she can ask for it. o It can be said that , you have the ability to write  a  paragraph. Do not use it with: Plurals nouns  o Abdulrahman and Khalid wrote good essays. o The USA has clever students doing a computer major. o There are no beautiful girls at university. Uncountable nouns or an uncountable noun  o According to new research .(Not a new research - uncountable -) o There  is  good work in this city and  a  taxi driver has  a  good job here. Remember that, always uncountable nouns use a singular verb  o Water is a good drink.(Not water are… or research are…)  o Also, you cannot say (a lot of water are…) or (researches are …)    ﻊﺿﻮﺗ )an( أﺪﺒﯾ   يﺬﻟا   دﺮﻔﻤﻟا   ﻢﺳﻻا   ﻞﺒﻗ   ﺎﺗﻮﺻ  ﺲﯿﻟو   ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻛ  ﺔﯿﻟﺎﺘﻟا   فوﺮﺤﻟﺎﺑ  :U,O,I,E,A ﺎﻓﻢﺳﻻ University فﺮﺤﻟﺎﺑ    ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻛ   أﺪﺒﯾ  U ﺎﺗﻮﺻ   ﺲﯿﻟ   ﻦﻜﻟو  ) ﻲﺘﺳ   ﺮﻔﯿﻧﻮﯾ ( نذإ a university student  ﻢﺳﻻا   ﺎﻣأ hour فﺮﺤﻟﺎﺑ    ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻛ   أﺪﺒﯾ  H ﺎﺗﻮﺻ   ﻦﻜﻟو  ) رَوا ( ﻲﺗﻮﺻ   فﺮﺤﺑ   أﺪﺑ   نذإ an hour   ﺔﻤﻠﻜﻟا   ﺮﻈﻧا    ﺔﻤﮭﻣ    ﺔﻄﻘﻧ   هﺬھو   تﺎﺤﻠﻄﺼﻤﻟا   وأ   تﺎﻤﻠﻜﻟا   ﺲﻗ   ﻚﻟذ   ﻰﻠﻋو SMS ﺮﻈﻧاو   ﺎﺗﻮﺻو   ﺎﺘﺑﺎﺘﻛ    ﺔﻠﺜﻣﻷا   J      ﺔﯾﺰﯿﻠﺠﻧﻻاو    ﺔﯿﺑﺮﻌﻟا    ﺔﻐﻠﻟا   ﻦﯿﺑﺎﻣ   تﺎﻓﻼﺘﺧا   كﺎﻨھ   نﻷ   دوﺪﻌﻣ   ﺮﯿﻏ   وأ   دوﺪﻌﻣ   ﻢﺳﻻا   ﻞھ    ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ   ﺐﺠﯾ ﺗ   ةﺪﯾﺪﻋ   تﺎﻤﻠﻛ   ﻲﻓﻚﻟذ   لﺎﺜﻣ   ةدوﺪﻌﻣ   ﺮﯿﻏ    ﺔﯾﺰﯿﻠﺠﻧﻻا    ﺔﻐﻠﻟا   ﻲﻓو   دوﺪﻌﻣ    ﺔﯿﺑﺮﻌﻟا   ﻲﻓ   ﺎھﺪﺠ :  نﻮﻣﺪﺨﺘﺴﯿﻓ    ﺔﯾﺰﯿﻠﺠﻧﻻا   ﻲﻓ   ﺎﻣأ    ﺔﯿﺑﺮﻌﻟا    ﺔﻐﻠﻟا   ﻲﻓ   ثﺎﺤﺑأو   ﺚﺤﺑ research ﺚﺤﺒﻟا   ﻰﻠﻋ    ﺔﻟﻻد   نﻮﻟﻮﻘﯾ   ﻻو   ثﺎﺤﺑﻷاو researches.  ﺔﻤﻠﻛ   ﻚﻟﺬﻛ evidence ﺎﮭﻧﻮﻌﻤﺠﯾ   ﻼﻓ   ﻞﯿﻟد  evidences ﻻا   نأ   ﻲھو   ىﺮﺧأ    ﺔﻄﻘﻧ   كﺎﻨھوﻻو   ﻞﻌﻔﻟا   ﺚﯿﺣ   ﻦﻣ   دﺮﻔﻤﻟا   ﻢﺳﻻا    ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻣ   ﻞﻣﺎﻌﯾ   دوﺪﻌﻤﻟا   ﺮﯿﻏ   ﻢﺳ   ﻒﯾﺮﻌﺘﻟا   ﻲﺗادأ    ﮫﻌﻣ   ﻞﻤﻌﺘﺴﺗ a و  an    داﺪﻋإ    ﺔﯾﺰﯿﻠﺠﻧﻻا    ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ    ﺔﯿﻤﯾدﺎﻛﻷا    ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻜﻟا    ﺲﺳأ   /  ﻲﺑﺮﺤﻟا    فاﻮﻧ    ﻦﺑ    ﺪﻟﺎﺧ  3 Adjective with Countable and uncountable  o He is  a  clever  student  . / He is clever  o She is  a  beautiful  girl  . / She is beautiful. o What  a  good  idea  ?/it is  a  good  idea  ./ It is a good idea to study these confusing adjectives.   o This is  a  very long  film  . / This film is very long . o Abdulrahman provided  a  good  suggestion  to me / it was good  advice    Adjective and passive  o Khalid is  interested  (Adj   )  in computer programs ( computer programs are the actor ). o My job is  boring  (Adj   )  and I am  bored  (Adj) 1- Fahad is bored.2- Fahad is boring.3- Fahad  ’   s job is boring. Adjective clauses or Relative clauses 1- Non-defining clauses: give extra information about the noun, but they are not essential    ã مﺪﺨﺘﺴﺗ ed ﺎﻧأ   ﻞﻗﺎﻌﻟا   ﺺﺨﺸﻟا   ﻊﻣ   تﺎﻔﺼﻟا   ﻦﯾﻮﻜﺘﻟ   لﺎﻌﻓﻷا   ﻊﻣ   ،ﺖﻧأ،ﻲھ . اﺬھ   ﻲﻓ   مﻼﻜﻟا   ﻞﺻاو   لﺎﺜﻣ   لﻮﮭﺠﻤﻠﻟ   ﻲﻨﺒﻤﻟا   تﺎﻔﺼﻟا   ﻦﻣ   عﻮﻨﻟا ) ﺮﺗﻮﯿﺒﻤﻜﻟا   ﺞ  ﻣاﺮﺒﺑ   ﻊﺘﻤﺘﺴﯾ   ﺪﻟﺎﺧ ( ﻞﻋﺎﻔﻟﺎﻓ   لﻮﮭﺠﻤﻠﻟ   ﻲﻨﺒﻣ   ﺎﻨھ   ﺎﻌﺘﻤﺘﺴﻣ   ﺪﻟﺎﺧ   ﺖﻠﻌﺟ   ﻲﺘﻟا   ﺮﺗﻮﯿﺒﻤﻜﻟا   ﺞ  ﻣاﺮﺑ . ã مﺪﺨﺘﺴﺗ ing لﺎﻌﻓﻷا   ﻊﻣ   تﺎﻔﺼﻟا   ﻦﯾﻮﻜﺘﻟ   ﺎ  ﻀ  ﯾأ    ﺔﯿﻟﺎﺘﻟا    ﺔﻠﺜﻣﻷا   ﺮﻈﻧا  :- ١ - ﻞﻠﻤﻟﺎﺑ   ﺮﻌﺸﯾ   لﺎﺜﻤﻟا   اﺬھ   ﻲﻓ   ﺪﮭﻓ ٢ - ﻞﻠﻤﻠﻟ   رﺪﺼﻣ   ﺪﮭﻓ )  ﺔﯿﻣﺎﻌﻟﺎﺑ   نﻮﻟﻮﻘﯾ   ﺎﻣ   ﺎﻤﻛ   سأر   ﻊﺟو ( ٣ -  ﺔﻠﻤﻣ   ﺪﮭﻓ    ﺔﻔﯿ  ﻇ و     ﺔﯿﻔﯾﺮﻌﺘﻟا   ﺮﯿ  ﻏ   ﻞﻤﺠﻟا   مﺪﻘﺗ  -   ﺔﯿﻓﺎﺿإ   تﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﻣ  -  ﺔﻓوﺮﻌﻣ   ء ﺎﯿﺷﻷا   وأ   ء ﺎﻤﺳﻷا   هﺬھ   نﻮﻜﺗ   نأ    طﺮﺷ   ء ﺎﯿﺷﻷا   وأ   ء ﺎﻤﺳﻷا   ﻦﻋ   ﺎﻘﺒﺴﻣ ﺔﯿﻟﺎﺘﻟا    ﺔﻠﺜﻣﻷا    ﺔﻓوﺮﻌﻤﻟا   ء ﺎﻤﺳﻷا   وأ   ء ﺎﯿﺷﻷﺎﺑ   دﻮﺼﻘﻤﻟاو  :-  دﺪﺤﻣ   ﻢﻠﻋ   ﻢﺳا   ﻒﯾﺎﻧ -  ﮫﻟود   ﻢﺳا   ﻦﯿﺼﻟا )   ﻂ  ﻘﻓ   ﻦﯿﻟﺎﯾﺮﺑ   تﻼﺤﻤﺑ   تﺎﺠﺘﻨﻤﻟا   ﻢﻜﺤﺑ   ﺎﻌﺒ  ﻃ    ﮫﻓوﺮﻌﻣ J (- ﻲﺒﯿﺒ  ﻃ ) ﺐﯿﺒﻄﻟا   اﺬھ   ء ﺎﺒ  ﻃ ﻷا   ﻦﻣ   عﻮﻧ   يأ   ﺎﻧدﺪﺣ (- يدﻮﻌﺴﻟا   ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻟا ) ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻟا   ﺎﻨﻠﻗ   اذإ   ﺎﻣأ   ﺎﻓوﺮﻌﻣ   ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻟا   ﺖﻠﻌﺟ   يدﻮﻌﺴﻟا    ﺔﻔﺻاﺬھ   ﻦﻣ   ﻞﻌﺠﺗ   ﻻ   ﻲﮭﻓ   ﺎھﺪﺣو   ﺎﻓوﺮﻌﻣ   ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻟا (  ﺔﯿﻟﺎﺘﻟا    ﺔﻠﺜﻣﻷا   ﻞﻣ ﺄ  ﺗ    ﺔﻠﺻﺎﻔﻟا   ﻊ   ﻀ  ﻧ   عﻮﻨﻟا   اﺬھ   ﻲﻓ o  Nayef  , who is Khalid  ’  s brother , is a student .  ﺔﻠﻤﺠﻟا who is Khalid  ’  s brother  ﻰﻤﺴﺗ  Adverbial clause  ﺔﯿﻔﺻﻮﻟا    ﺔﻠﻤﺠﻟا   وأ   ﻲھو    ﺔﯿﻘﺒﺘﻤﻟا    ﺔﻠﻤﺠﻟا   ﺎﻣأ Nayef is a student  ﮭﻓ    ﺔﻠﻤﺠﻟا   ﻲ main clause  ﺔﯿﺳﺎﺳﻷا    ﺔﻠﻤﺠﻟا   وأ   ﺎﻤھ   نﺎﺘﻠﻤﺟ   كﺎﻨھ   نأ   ﺎﻨﻟﺎﺜﻣ   ﻲﻓ   مﻼﻜﻟا   ﻞﺻأ :-Nayef is a student-Nayef is Khalid ’ s brother  ﺪﺣا   ﺐﺘﻛاو   ﻞﻗﻮﻗ   ﺚﺤﺒﻟا   كﺮﺤﻤﻟ   ﻊﺟرا   ةداﺰﺘﺳﻻا   ﺖﺒﺒﺣأ   اذإ   ﺐﻌﺸﺘﻣو   ﻞﯾﻮ  ﻃ    ﺔﻟ ﺄ  ﺴﻤﻟا   هﺬھ   ﻲﻓ   مﻼﻜﻟا    ﺔﯿﻟﺎﺘﻟا   تﺎﻤﻠﻜﻟا :Adverbial clause وأ  Adjective clause وأ  dependent clause ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   ﺮﺧأ    حﺮﺷ  : S=SubjectV=verb Nayef  , who is Khalid  ’  s brother , is an engineer . ﻲﻟﺎﺘﻟا   لﺎﺜﻤﻟا   ﻞﻣ ﺄ  ﺗ :   Nayef  , who works for STC , lives in Canada.     S1V1S2V2
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