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Case Study (Nasopharyngeal Cancer) | Lung | Respiratory System

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I. Introduction Brief Description of the Disease Condition The body is made up of many types of cells. Normally, cells grow, divide and die. Sometimes, cells mutate (change) and begin to grow and divide more quickly than normal cells. Rather than dying, these abnormal cells clump together to form tumors. If these tumors are malignant (cancerous), they can invade and kill your body's healthy tissues. From these tumors, cancer cells can metastasize (spread) and form new tumors in other parts of
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  I. Introduction Brief Description of the Disease Condition The body is made up of many types of cells. Normally, cells grow, divide and die. Sometimes,cells mutate (change) and begin to grow and divide more quickly than normal cells. Rather thandying, these abnormal cells clump together to form tumors. If these tumors are malignant(cancerous), they can invade and kill your body's healthy tissues. From these tumors, cancer cells can metastasize (spread) and form new tumors in other parts of the body. By contrast, benign (noncancerous) tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Nasopharyngeal (say: nay-zo-fair-in-gee-al ) cancer is a malignant tumor that develops in the nasopharynx (say: nay-zo-fair-inks ). The nasopharynx is the area where the back part of your nose opens intoyour upper throat. This is also where tubes from your ears open into your throat. Nasopharyngeal cancer is rare. It most often affects people who are between 30 and 50 years of age. Men are more likely to have nasopharyngeal cancer than women. You are most likely to getthis cancer if you or your ancestors came from southern China, particularly Canton (now calledGuangzhou) or Hong Kong. You are also more likely to get this cancer if you are from a countryin Southeast Asia, like Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia or Thailand. No one knows for sure whatcauses nasopharyngeal cancer. Eating salt-preserved foods (like fish, eggs, leafy vegetables androots) during early childhood may increase the risk of getting this form of cancer. The Epstein-Barr virus may also make a person more likely to get nasopharyngeal cancer. This is the samevirus that causes infectious mononucleosis (also called mono ). You may also inherit atendency to get nasopharyngeal cancer. Reason for Choosing the Case  Nasopharyngeal Cancer is one of the unusual terms for a lay person and a rare case that a nursewould encounter. Acquisition of cognitive knowledge regarding the topic would enable theresearchers in providing optimum care for clients suffering such and in delivering appropriateinterventions that would promote health and wellness for the client.1  Statistics (Global and Local) Cancer of the nasopharynx is a rare neoplasm in most countries. However, it occurs at highfrequencies in China and Southeast Asia. The highest incidence rates in the SEER regions occur among the Chinese. Rates are also high in Vietnamese and Filipino men, two groups thatinclude persons of Chinese heritage. Incidence rates of nasopharyngeal cancer are also availablefor black, Hispanic and white men and for white women in the SEER areas. There were too fewnasopharyngeal cancers diagnosed between 1988 and 1992 in the other racial/ethnic groups to provide meaningful incidence rates.The average annual age-adjusted incidence rate of nasopharyngeal cancer in Chinese men, 10.8 per 100,000, is 1.4 times greater than that of Vietnamese men and nearly 2.8 times greater thanthat of Filipino men. In fact, the rate among Filipino men, although relatively high, is the sameas that for Chinese women. Rates of one per 100,000 and lower occur in black men, Hispanicand non-Hispanic white men and non-Hispanic white women.The United States mortality rates for cancer of the nasopharynx reflect patterns similar to thosefor SEER incidence rates. Mortality is highest in Chinese, lower in Filipinos and lowest among blacks, Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. No mortality rates are currently available for Vietnamese. Incidence-to-mortality rate ratios vary, with Chinese and Filipinos having higher incidence relative to mortality (2.3 for men in both groups and 3.2 for Chinese women) thanother groups (ranging from about 1.7 for white Hispanic men to two for non-Hispanic whitemen). Incidence and mortality rates for nasopharyngeal cancer increase through the oldest agegroup, although the small number of cases precluded the calculation of reliable rates for many populations.The major modifiable risk factor identified for cancer of the nasopharynx is the consumption of Cantonese salted fish, which is a common food item eaten from early infancy onward by groupswith high risk of this disease. Other possible risk factors include extensive exposures to dustsand smoke and regular consumption of other fermented foods. The role of Epstein-Barr virus inthe development of nasopharyngeal cancer continues to be explored.2  Nurse-centered Objectives: The group aims: ã to have a better understanding about the causes of nasopharyngeal cancer. ã to determine the medical and surgical treatment that has given to the disease entity. ã to perform well our role as student nurses in the treatment and achieving the optimumlevel of health of the patient. ã to enhance our nursing skills most importantly focusing on promotive and preventivenursing measures.3  II.Nursing Assessment Personal Data Mr. Split, 74 years old, married and a father of 7 children. Offspring of Mr. and Mrs. ChocoSplit, he was born on December 31, 1934 in Angeles Pampanga, and at this point in time, heresides in Timog Park, Angeles. He is a Filipino-born citizen. He was admitted last September 18, 2008 in Angeles Medical Center (AMC).Mr. Split is a jeepney operator and he is the sole provider for their means of living. His children,mostly married, some are presently unemployed and contribute to the burden on financial mattersto the family of orientation.Mr. Split has a lifestyle of eating food that should or not allowed to him such as foods that arehigh amounts in sugar and low density cholesterol. Besides that Mr. Split is also attached tocigarette smoking. He also worked as a painter of houses for living for the past 20 years. History of Past Illness Mr. Split’s last check-up was done 3 years ago and was diagnosed to have nasopharyngealcancer. Prior to this, he has also been diagnosed to have Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 and PulmonaryTuberculosis. According to his daughter, his first admission in the hospital was September 18,2008. History of Present Illness One (1) month PTA, Mr. Split experienced difficulty of breathing, and anorexia lasting for 1week. A week PTA, he still experienced difficulty of breathing, and anorexia associated plusmuscle weakness with easy fatigability but still he did not seek medical attention. A day PTA, hestill experienced the same signs but this time he decided to seek medical attention.4
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