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Ceramics | Ceramics | Glasses

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1 Introduction Ceramic materials divide into three categories: 1. Glasses – melting & solidification processing 2. Traditional ceramics – particulate processing 3. New ceramics – particulate processing 2 Glass  Glass is one of three basic types of ceramics. Glass is distinguished by its amorphous (noncrystalline) structure.  Structure : Network formers Molecules that link up with each other to form long chains and networks. Hot glass cools, chains unable to organize into a pattern. Solid
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  1    2   Ceramic materials divide into three categories: 1.Glasses   –  melting & solidification processing 2.Traditional ceramics   –  particulate processing 3.New ceramics   –  particulate processing Introduction    3   Glass    Glass is one of three basic types of ceramics. Glass is distinguished by its amorphous (noncrystalline) structure.  Structure : Network formers Molecules that link up with each other to form long chains and networks. Hot glass cools, chains unable to organize into a pattern. Solidification has short-range order only.   Amorphous structure occurs by adding impurities (Na + ,Mg 2+ ,Ca 2+ , Al 3+ ).   Impurities: interfere with formation of crystalline structure  4   Glass    Raw Materials 1. Glass forming oxides: usually the dominant constituent SiO 2 , B 2 O 3 , P 2 O 5 , etc. 2. Fluxes: reduce melting temperatures Na 2 O, PbO, K 2 O, Li 2 O, etc. 3. Property modifiers: added to tailor chemical durability, expansion, viscosity, etc. CaO, Al 2 O 3 , etc. 4. Colorants: oxides with 3d, 4f electron structures; minor additives (<1 wt%) 5. Fining agents: minor additives (<1 wt%) to help promote bubble removal As-, Sb-oxides, KNO 3 , NaNO 3 , NaCl, fluorides, sulfates
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