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Green Marketing FMCG Products | Environmentalism | Sampling (Statistics)

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a detailed study on green maketing of products
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    Title Study on perception of consumers towards Green FMCG Products.    Authors Kavita Gujral  Affiliations Asst. Professor, Punjab college of technical Education, Ludhiana. Contact Details Kavita@pcte.edu.in, (09988827898)   Study on perception of consumers towards Green FMCG Products. Kavita Gujral ABSTRACT   The present paper focuses on studying the behavior of consumers towards Green FMCG  Products & finding out how many people are  switching from non green segment to greener  segment and what is the reason behind their  purchase and what motivates them. A primary  study has been carried out to find out the  perception of consumers towards green  products. Due to increasing awareness about Green FMCG Products people are shifting towards greener segment showing concern towards environment and their family.   Introduction 1.1 Meaning   According to the American Marketing Association, green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production process, packaging changes, as well as modifying advertising. Yet defining green marketing is not a simple task where several meanings intersect and contradict each other; an example of this will be the existence of varying social, environmental and retail definitions attached to this term. Other similar terms used are Environmental Marketing and Ecological Marketing. 1.2 Evolution of Green Marketing The green marketing has evolved over a period of time. According to Peattie (2001), the evolution of green marketing has three phases. First phase was termed as Ecological green marketing, and during this period all marketing activities were concerned to help environment problems and provide remedies for environmental problems. Second phase was Environmental green marketing and the focus shifted on clean technology that involved designing of innovative new products, which take care of  pollution and waste issues. Third phase was Sustainable green marketing. It came into  prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000. 1.3   Green FMCG Products and its characteristics The products those are manufactured through green technology and that caused no environmental hazards are called green products. Promotion of green technology and Green FMCG Products is necessary for conservation of natural resources and sustainable development. We can define Green FMCG Products by following measures: ã Products those are srcinally grown,   ã Products those are recyclable, reusable and  biodegradable, ã Products with natural ingredients,   ã Products containing recycled contents, non-toxic chemical, ã Products contents under approved chemical,   ã Products that do not harm or pollute the environment, ã Products that will not be tested on animals,   ã Products that have eco -friendly packaging i.e. reusable, refillable containers etc. 1.4   Green Marketing Mix  Every company has its own favorite marketing mix. Some have 4 P's and some have 7 P's of marketing mix. The 4 P's of green marketing are that of a conventional marketing but the challenge before marketers is to use 4 P's in an innovative manner.    Product  The ecological objectives in planning products are to reduce resource consumption and  pollution and to increase conservation of scarce resources (Keller man, 1978). Price  Price is a critical and important factor of green marketing mix. Most consumers will only be  prepared to pay additional value if there is a  perception of extra product value. This value may be improved performance, function, design, visual appeal, or taste. Green marketing should take all these facts into consideration while charging a premium price. Promotion  There are three types of green advertising: - a) Ads that address a relationship between a  product/service and the biophysical environment  b) Those that promote a green lifestyle by highlighting a product or service c) Ads that present a corporate image of environmental responsibility Place  The choice of where and when to make a  product available will have significant impact on the customers. Very few customers will go out of their way to buy green products. 1.5 RULES OF GREEN MARKETING   1.   Educate the customers : isn't just a matter of letting people know you're doing whatever you're doing to protect the environment, but also a matter of letting them know why it matters. Otherwise, for a significant portion of your target market, it's a case of So what? and your green marketing campaign goes nowhere. 2.   Being Genuine & Transparent: means that a)   Are you actually doing what you claim to be doing in your green marketing campaign b)   the rest of your business policies are consistent with whatever you are doing that's environmentally friendly. Both these conditions have to be met for your business to establish the kind of environmental credentials that will allow a green marketing campaign to succeed. 3.   Reassure the Buyer: Consumers must be made to  believe that the product performs the job it's supposed to do-they won't forego  product quality in the name of the environment. 4.   Consider Your Pricing: If you're charging a premium for your product-and many environmentally preferable products cost more due to economies of scale and use of higher-quality ingredients-make sure those consumers can afford the premium and feel it's worth it. 5.   Giving your customers an opportunity to participate : means personalizing the  benefits of your environmentally friendly actions, normally through letting the customer take part in positive environmental action. Thus leading brands should recognize that consumer expectations have changed: It is not enough for a company to green its products; consumers expect the products that they purchase  pocket friendly and also to help reduce the environmental impact in their own lives too. 1.6 Current scenario of Green marketing in India Organizations perceive Environmental marketing as an opportunity to achieve its objectives. Firms have realized that consumers prefer products that do not harm the natural environment as also the human health. Firms marketing such Green FMCG Products are preferred over the others not doing so and thus develop a competitive advantage, simultaneously meeting their business objectives.  Organizations believe they have a moral obligation to be more socially responsible. This is in keeping with the philosophy of CSR which has been successfully adopted by many business houses to improve their corporate image. Firms in this situation can take two approaches: ã Use the fact that they are environmentally  responsible as a marketing tool. ã Become responsible without prompting this fact. Governmental Bodies are forcing Firms to Become More Responsible. In most cases the government forces the firm to adopt  policy which protects the interests of the consumers. It does so in following ways: ã Reduce production of harmful goods or by   products ã Modify cons umer and industry's use and /or consumption of harmful goods; or ã Ensure that all types of consumers have the ability to evaluate the environmental composition of goods. Competitors' Environmental Activities Pressure Firms to change their Environmental Marketing Activities. In order to get even with competitors claim to being environmentally friendly, firms change over to green marketing. Result is green marketing  percolates entire industry. Cost Factors Associated With Waste Disposal or Reductions in Material Usage Forces Firms to Modify their Behavior. With cost cutting  becoming part of the strategy of the firms it adopts green marketing in relation to these activities. It may pursue these as follows: ã A Firm develops a technology for reducing waste and sells it to other firms. ã A waste recycling or removal industry develops. 2.1 Review of literature    Kilbourne,  W.E. (1998).in the paper titled “ Green Marketing: A Theoretical Perspective ” discussed that the failure of green marketing to move beyond the limitations of the prevailing paradigm. While there are nascent macro developments in marketing that might lead to a truly green marketing considering sustainability, holistic thought, and the limitations of the prevailing  paradigm, they remain thus far on the  periphery of the discipline.    McDaniel, S.W. & Rylander, D.H.  (1993 ) in the article titled   “ Strategic Green Marketing”  stated that Green marketing is taking shape as one of the key business strategies of the future. The increasing environmental consciousness makes it incumbent on consumer marketers not just to respond to, but to lead the way in, environmental  programs. Consumer marketers should: recognize a product's environmental implications; analyze the changing consumer and political attitudes while recognizing the role that companies can play in  protecting the environment    Ottman, J.A.  (2004).in his article titled “   Removing the Barriers for Green Market ” concluded that businessmen should remove  barriers and create some new customers for  business. Customers should feel empowered. The more the people believe that they as one individual or working in concert with all other consumers of a product can make a difference, the greater the likelihood that they will buy greener  product    Peattie, K.   (2001) in his article titled “ Golden Goose or Wild Goose? The Hunt for the Green Consumer. Business Strategy and the Environment ” analyses that  research about the identity and nature of the green consumer has been the central character in the development of green marketing, as businesses attempt to understand and respond to external pressures to improve their environmental performance. Marketing  practitioners and academics are attempting to identify and understand green consumers and their needs, and to develop market offerings that meet these needs
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