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Hallucinogenic Fungi in Macedonia | Nature | Wellness

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Hallucinogenic fungi in the Republic of Macedonia HALLUCINOGENIC FUNGI IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA Mitko KARADELEV & Sofce SPASIKOVA Institute of Biology, Faculty of Natural Science, P.O. Box 162, Gazi Baba bb, 1000 Skopje ABSTRACT Karadelev M. & Spasikova S.. (2004). Hallucinogenic fungi in the Republic of Macedonia. Proceedings of the 2nd Congress of Ecologists of the Republic of Macedonia with International Participation, 25-29.10.2003, Ohrid. Special issues of Macedonian Ecological Societ
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  Hallucinogenic fungi in the Republic of Macedonia 479 Proceedings of the 2 nd Congress of Ecologists of Macedonia Introduction Lately, mycological investigations in the Republicof Macedonia have been intensified. The register of the hallucinogenic species in the Republic of Mace-donia is created according to the published data fromthe previous investigations (Tortich 1988, Karadelev2000), the data- base MACFUNGI of the Mycologi-cal laboratory at the   Faculty of Natural Science inSkopje, and from the field investigations of the au-thors. The investigations were carried out on variouslocalities in the Republic of Macedonia, such as themountains: Osogovo, Kozuf, Kitka, Vodno, Jakupi-ca, Sar Planina, Ograzden, the National Parks: Pelis-ter, Mavrovo, and Galicica, and the area of the townsand villages: Krusevo, Resen, Katlanovo, Skopje andGevgelija. Materials and methods The material was collected in various kinds of for-ests, associations and on mountain pastures, on soilor on fallen branches, trunks, logs and living trees, as HALLUCINOGENIC FUNGI IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA Mitko KARADELEV & Sofce SPASIKOVA  Institute of Biology, Faculty of Natural Science, P.O. Box 162, Gazi Baba bb, 1000 Skopje ABSTRACT Karadelev M. & Spasikova S.. (2004). Hallucinogenic fungi in the Republic of Macedonia.  Proceedings of the 2 nd  Congress of Ecologists of the Republic of Macedonia with International Participation, 25-29.10.2003, Ohrid  .Special issues of Macedonian Ecological Society, Vol. 6, Skopje.According to the recent research into fungi biodiversity of R. Macedonia, 1,250 species have been registered. Fromthese fungi, 16 species show proved hallucinogenic effects. These species belong to the following genera:  Psilo-cybe, Amanita, Panaeolus, Elaphomyces, Claviceps, Gymnopilus, Pluteus, Stropharia and Mycena. In most of them, these effects are due to the presence of hallucinogenic compounds such as psilocin, psilocybin, baeocystin andnor-baeocystin. Key words: hallucinogenic fungi, hallucinogenic effects, hallucinogenic compounds. IZVOD Karadelev M. i Spasikova S. (2004). Halucinogeni gabi vo Republika Makedonija. Zbornikna trudovi od 2 -ot Kongres na ekolozite na Makedonija so me|unarodno u~estvo, 25-29.10.2003,Ohrid . Posebni izdanija na Makedonskoto ekolo{ko dru{tvo, Kn. 6, Skopje.Vrz osnova na istra`uvawata na mikodiverzitetot vo Republika Makedonija dosega se reg-istrirani 1250 vidovi na gabi. Od niv, 16 vidovi poka`uvaat halucinogeno dejstvo. Tie pripa|aatna rodovite:  Psilocybe, Amanita, Panaeolus, Elaphomyces, Claviceps, Gymnopilus, Pluteus, Stropharia   i   Myce-na . Kaj pove}eto od niv ovie efekti se rezultat na prisustvoto na halucinogeni soedinenija, kakopsilocin, psilocibin, beocistin i nor-beocistin. Klu~ni zborovi: halucinogeni gabi, halucinogeni efekti, halucinogeni soedinenija. well as on enriched soil, infected plants, etc. The iden-tification of the species was done either on the fieldor in the mycological laboratory at the Faculty of Sci-ence and Mathematics in Skopje, using microscopesand reagents (Melzer, KOH, Sulphovaniline etc.).Some of the collected fungi were preserved in the National Mycological Collection (FUNGI MACE-DONICI), while the data were put in the databaseMACFUNGI.For identification are used the following: Moser (1983), Breitenbach & Kränzlin (1981, 1986, 1991,1995, 2000), Paul Staments (1996), Däncke, R. M.(2001), Krieglsteiner, G. J. (2000), Flammer (1980),Flammer & Horak (1983), etc. Results  Amanita muscaria   (L.:Fr.) Hooker - grows on soil in deciduous and coniferous forests,from July to October. Osogovo Mt.: Ponikva, Calamintho grandiflorae-Fag-etum, 1500-1600;  Krusevo: on the way to Children's  Mitko KARADELEV & Sofce SPASIKOVA 480Zbornik na trudovi od 2 - ot Kongres na ekolozite na Makedonija resort, Festuco heterophyllae – Fagetum, 1300;  Ko- zuf Mt.: Smrdliva voda, Calamintho grandiflorae-Fag-etum, 1000, and Konjari, in mixed forest of   Fagus and  Pinus   nigra , 1100; Mavrovo: Fago-Abietetummeridionale, 1400. Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul- This ascomycete species is a parasite on rye. It isfound in various rye plantations throughout R. Mace-donia.  Elaphomyces granulatus Fr.  Jakupica Mt:. Ceples, Calamintho grandiflorae-Fag-etum, 1300-1400, July 1999.  Elaphomyces reticulatus Vittad.  Kozuf Mt.: Smrdliva Voda, Festuco heterophyllae – Fagetum, 800, October 1985;  NP Galicica : Pljuska,Quercetum frainetto-cerris macedonicum, 1000, Oc-tober, 1991;  NP Pelister  : v. Brajcino, Quercetumfrainetto-cerris macedonicum, 1000, October 2002. Gymnopilus spectabilis (Fr.) Sing  NP Mavrovo: Bunec, Calamintho grandiflorae-Fage-tum, 1250, September 1998, on log of   Fagus .  Mycena pura (Pers.) Kumm.- grows on soil in deciduous and coniferous forests,from July to October, from 500 to 1750 m a. Tab.1. Hallucinogenic species and forest associations Tab. 1. Halucinogeni gabi i nivnite {umski zaednici  Note :C.g.-F. - Calamintho grandiflorae-FagetumF.h. - F.- Festuco heterophyllae - FagetumP.n.& F. - mixed forest of Pinus nigra and FagusD.v.-P.p. - Digitali viridiflorae-Pinetum peucesG.l.-P.p. - Gentiano luteae- Pinetum peucesF., P.p. & Q. - mixed forest of Fagus, Pinus peuce and QuercusB., Pop., P.p & A. - mixed forest of Betula, Populus, Pinus peuce and AbiesQ.-O.p. - Orno-Quercetum petraeaeQ.-Car.o.m. - Querco-Carpinetum orientalis macedonicumPiceetum – Piceetum excelsae subalpinum scardicummeadow - in meadowP.n.,P.s.& F.- mixed forest of Fagus, Pinus sylvestris and P.nigraQ.f.-c.m. - Quercetum frainetto-cerris macedonicumAlnetum – Carici elongatae – Alnetum glutinosaeP.web.-J.ex. - Pruno webii-Junipiterum excelsaeJ.c.& P.p.- pastured place with J.communis and P.peuceFag.-Abi. - Fago-Abietetum meridionalePlant. of P.p. – Plantation of Fagus and P. nigraRye plant. – Rye plantation.  Hallucinogenic fungi in the Republic of Macedonia 481 Proceedings of the 2 nd Congress of Ecologists of Macedonia  NP Pelister: (ass. Digitali viridiflorae - Pinetum peu-ces with  Fagus ): near Mala Korija, Caparska Prese-ka, around Mt. house Kopanki, Palisnopje, Rotinskariver - lower part, around v. Trnovo, between Mt.house Kopanki and Palisnopje; above Kopanki, (Gen-tiano luteae - Pinetum peuces); above v. Magarevo,near spring, (mixed forest of   Fagus ,  Pinus peuce and Quercus ); Golema livada, (mixed forest of   Betula ,  Populus ,  Pinus peuce and  Abies );  Kozuf Mt.: Kon- jari, (  Fagus and  Pinus nigra );  Kitka Mt.: Preslap,(Calamintho grandiflorae – Fagetum) and near Preslap, (Orno-Quercetum petraeae);  NP Mavrovo: Bunec, (Calamintho grandiflorae-Fagetum); VodnoMt.: (Querco - carpinetum orientalis);  Jakupica Mt.: v. Gorno Vranovce, (Festuco heterophyllae – Fage-tum), and Ceples, (Calamintho grandiflorae – Fage-tum); Sar Planina Mt.: Jelak, (Piceetum excelsae sub-alpinum scardicum).  Panaeolus papilionaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Quel. Vodno Mt. , 950 m a., May 2002, on enriched soil;  NP  Pelister: around Kopanki, Digitali viridiflorae - Pin-etum peuces, 1600, September 2002.  Panaeolus semiovatus Fr. (Lundell)  NP     Pelister: around Kopanki, in meadow, 1650, Sep-tember 2002, on dung.  Pluteus salicinus   (Pers.: Fr.) Kummer  Ograzden Mt. : Ezovo Brdo, mixed forest of   Fagus ,  Pinus sylvestris and  Pinus nigra , 1100-1300, July2000, on rotten branches of   Fagus ; NP Galicica: Pl- juska, Quercetum frainetto-cerris macedonicum,1000, October 2001, on enriched soil;  JakupicaMt.: Ceples, Calamintho grandiflorae – Fagetum, 1400 –1500, July 1999, on stump of   Fagus sylvatica ;  Ko- zuf Mt.: Konjari  , Fagus and  Pinus nigra , 1100, Octo- ber 2000.  Psilocybe coprophylla (Bull.: Fr.) Quel.  Jakupica Mt.: v.Gorno Vranovce, Festuco heterophyl-lae - Fagetum, 700-800, November 1998, on dung.  Psilocybe bullacea (Bull.: Fr.) Kumm  NP Pelister  : v. Rotino, plantation of P.peuce, 1050,April 2002, on fallen branch of   Pinus peuce , andaround v. Trnovo, Festuco heterophyllae - Fagetumwith  Populus tremula , 1200, September 2002, onleaves reminants of   Populus tremula ;  Prespa: Strict Nature Reserve „Ezerani“, Carici elongatae – Alne-tum glutinosae, April 2002, in meadow, close to Salix purpurea.  Psilocybe montana (Fr.) Quelet  NP Pelister: between Mt. house Kopanki and Palis-nopje, Digitali viridiflorae - Pinetum peuces, 1540 -1640 m a., October 2001, on soil.  Psilocybe muscorum (Orton) Mos.  NP Pelister: above v. Slivnica, Quercetum frainetto – cerris macedonicum, 1050, April 2002, in moss  Rha-comitrum .  Psilocybe physaloides (Bull.: Merat) Quelet  Prespa: Strict Nature Reserve „Ezerani“, in mead-ow, 850, April 2002, on soil.  Psilocybe subcoprophyla (Bull.:Fr.) Kumm  Katlanovo: St. Jovan Veterski monastery, Pruno we- bii-Junipiterum excelsae, 150-200, October 2002, ondung.  Stropharia coronilla (Bull.: Fr.) Quel.  NP Pelister: on the way to Molika Hotel, pastured place with  Juniperus communis and  Pinus peuce ,1100, April 2002, in meadow. Vodno Mt.: Querco-carpinetum orientalis, 750 – 1000, October 2002, onsoil; Gevgelija: v. Stojakovo, in meadow, 80, Decem- ber 1993;  Kozuf Mt.: Konjari,  Fagus and  Pinus ni- gra , 1100, October 2000, on dung. Disscucion In the Republic of Macedonia, so far, 16 species of hallucinogenic fungi have been registered. The mostfrequent of these species are Mycena pura and  Aman-ita muscaria . The representatives of other genera suchas  Pcilocybe ,  Panaeolus , Gymnopilus and  Elapho-myces are very seldom.All these fungi were found growing on various sub-strates. Usually, these fungi were found growing onsoil ( Stropharia coronilla ,  Psilocybe physaloides ,  Psilocybe montana , Mycena pura ,  Amanita muscar-ia ), on enriched soil ( Stropharia coronilla ,  Psilocybebullacea ,  Pluteus salicinus ,  Panaeolus papiliona-ceus ), on dung ( Stropharia coronilla ,  Psilocybe sub-coprophyla, Psilocybe coprophylla, Panaeolus semi-ovatus ).Certain species of these fungi are lignicolous, there-fore they were registered growing on different kindsof wood or wood debris:  Psilocybe   bullacea was foundgrowing on fallen branch of Pinus peuce and on leavesreminants of Populus tremula;  Pluteus salicinus wasfound growing on rotten branches and on stump of   Fagus , while Gymnopilus spectabilis was found onlog of   Fagus .It is very interesting to notice that two registered spe-cies were not found growing on any of the mentionedsubstrares:  Psilocybe muscorum was found in moss  Rhacomitrum ,  Elaphomyces granulatus and Gymno- pilus reticulatus were only found under soil, while Claviceps purpurea .Tab. 1 shows the distribution of the registered spe-cies in various associations.The most significant characteristic of these fungi istheir chemical constitution. Once ingested, these fun-gi cause certain syndromes and hallucinations. Dueto this effect, they are called hallucinogenic fungi.Different fungi may contain different or common hal-lucinogenic compounds.  Mitko KARADELEV & Sofce SPASIKOVA 482Zbornik na trudovi od 2 - ot Kongres na ekolozite na Makedonija The psilocin-psilocibin syndrome is caused with in-gestion of fungi that belong to the genera Psilocybe, Panaeolus, Stropharia, Inocybe, Gymnopilus, Plu-teus and  Inocybe. The compounds that cause thissyndrome are psilocin, psilocybin, baeocystin andnor- baeocystin. All of these compounds are indolicalkaloids and are very active. The symptoms are nau-sea and/or vomiting, headaches, pupil dilatation andhypothermia. Of course, certain visions and halluci-nations may occur.The muscarine syndrome is named after the poi-sonous compound muscarine. The muscarine is foundin  Amanita muscaria and Mycena pura . There arealso data that show that some Clitocybe and Cono-cybe species contain certain amount of muscarine.Still the compounds which cause the hallucinationsare the ibotenic acid and its derivatives: muscimolwhich is the most active, and the muscazone whichis the least active. All of the mentioned compoundsare found in A. muscaria , while M. pura containsonly the muscarine. Therefore the hallucinogeniceffects of this species are questioned. The effects of this syndrome can be sorted in three random phases:in the first phase physical symptoms like nausea andvomitus occur, in the second phase the narcotic ef-fect predominates and in the third phase is followed by visions, hallucinations, sensor disorder, ataxia andother vestibular disorders.The ergotism is a syndrome caused by   ingestion of  Claviceps purpurea. The active compound of    thisspecies is ergot. It is important to notice that C. pur- purea is a source for compounds for the semi – syn-thetic drug LSD. The effects caused by the ergot arevomitus, diarrhea, hallucinations, and in more seri-ous cases, gangrene may occur. Conclusion The so far registered hallucinogenic fungi in R.Macedonia are 16 species. The hallucinogenic spe-cies of fungi registered in Republic of Macedonia belong to the following genera: Psilocybe (P. bulla-cea, P. cyanescens, P. coprophyla, P.montana, P.muscorum, P. physaloides), Panaeolus (P. papilion-aceus, P. semiovatus), Elaphomyces (E. granulatus, E. reticulatus), Amanita (A.muscaria), Claviceps (C.purpurea), Gymnopilus (G.spectabilis), Pluteus (P.salicinus), Stropharia (S.coronilla) and   Mycena (M.pura). These fungi were found growing in various decidu-ous, coniferous forests, in meadows, on enriched soil,on dung, on wood, etc. Due to the presence of cer-tain hallucinogenic compounds, they cause three dif-ferent syndroms: ergotism, psilocin-psilocibin andmuscarine syndrome. The hallucinogenic compoundsare ergot, psilocin, psilocibin, baeocistin, nor-baeo-cystin, muscarine, muscimol, muscazone and ibotenicacid. References Breitenbach, J., Kränzlin, F. (1991). Fungi of Swit-zerland Volume 3. Edition Mycologia, Switzer-land. 361 pp.Breitenbach, J., Kränzlin, F. (1995). Fungi of Swit-zerland Volume 4. Edition Mycologia, Switzer-land. 368 pp.Breitenbach, J., Kränzlin, F. (2000). Fungi of Swit-zerland Volume 5. Edition Mycologia, Switzer-land. 338 pp.Däncke, R. M. (2001). 1200 Pilze in Farbfotos. Ger-many. 1178 pp.Flammer, R. (1980). Differentialdiagnose der Pilz-vergiftungen. Gustav Ficher Verlag, Stuttgart - New York.Flammer, R., Horak, E.(1983). Giftpilze – Pilzgifte.  Ekennung und Behandlung von Pilzvergiftungen.Sporenschl  ű   ssel. Kosmos, Gesellshaft der  Naturfreunde Franckh’sche Verlagshandlung, Stut-tgart. Karadelev, M. (2000). Kvalitativno-kvanti-tativen sosotav na makromicetite ( Basidi-omycetes i Ascomycetes ) vo fitocenozata Calamintho grandiflorae-Fagetum vo sosotav naNacionalniot Park „ Mavrovo “ . Skopje. Krieglsteiner, G. J. (2000). Die Großpilze Baden-Wurttembergs Band 2, Eugen Ulmer GmbH &Co., Germany. 620 pp.Krieglsteiner, G. J. (2000). Die Großpilze Baden-Wurttembergs Band 3, Eugen Ulmer GmbH &Co., Germany. 634 pp.Moser, M. (1983). Die Röhrlinge und Blatterpilze.Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgard, 533 pp. Sta-ments, P. (1996). Psilocybin mushrooms of theWorld.  An identification guide. Ten Speed Press,Berkeley, California.Torti ć , M. (1988). Materials for the mycoflora of Macedonia. Maked. akad. na naukite iumetnos-tite. Skopje, 64p.
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