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IRJET- t GIS based Road Safety Audit of State Highways in Thrissur

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)e-ISSN: 2395-0056Volume: 06 Issue: 06 | June 2019p-ISSN: 2395-0072www.irjet.netGIS based Road…
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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)e-ISSN: 2395-0056Volume: 06 Issue: 06 | June 2019p-ISSN: 2395-0072www.irjet.netGIS based Road Safety Audit of State Highways in Thrissur Bincy B J1, Archana S2 1PGResearch Scholar, Dept of Civil Engineering, Jyothi Engineering College, Kerala, India Professor, Dept of Civil Engineering, Jyothi Engineering College, Kerala, India ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------2AssistantAbstract - In India the number of road crashes is raising at frightening rate. There is one death in every four minutes due to road crashes in India. Hence it is necessary to improve the road safety by conducting a detailed Road Safety Audit (RSA) in order to identify road safety issues and to make necessary improvements. This will eventually delay any rehabilitation or repair process making the road conditions the worst and risky. This project work focus on conducting a detailed Road Safety Audit and qualitatively estimates potential road safety issues on two road stretches and also proposes a systematic approach to do the road safety audit on a highway and to do effective and efficient data mining, for deriving knowledge driven decisions in the ranking of highway sections based on their risk. The approach will help to perform safety evaluation of sections and to identify the crash potential locations. Further output of the work is the development of a mathematical model for classification of highway sections based on road safety audit.are restricted quantitative studies of the advantages gained through road safety audit recommendations on existing roadways. In this study Road safety audit is conducted in the State Highways in Thrissur as a tool to assist and quantify the road characteristics with road crashes.Key Words: Road Safety Audit, Factor analysis, Data mining,Table -1: Check List2. METHODOLOGY Two study stretches were selected for conducting road safety auditing. It is the State Highway SH 74(17 KM) and SH 50 (15 KM). For conducting the road safety audit road sections are divided on the basis of geometry (500m each section).Crash spot is identified based on the accident details collected from the police stations. The study stretch is selected based on the past five year crash data. Based on the road safety manual, check list is prepared. While conducting the road safety audit the parameter considered are shown in Table 1Road safety model,Geographic Information systemDescriptionObservationsRoadway width (m)1. INTRODUCTIONType of terrainA Road Safety Audit (RSA) is that the formal safety performance examination of existing or future road by a multidisciplinary team. It qualitatively estimates and reports on potential road issues of safety and identifies opportunities for enhancements in safety for all road users. Every year, more than one million people across the world become the victims of road traffic injuries. To combat the number of injuries and fatalities, road safety audits have become an increasingly popular approach to improve safety on roadways. Road safety audits are versatile because they can be used to evaluate existing roadways and also roadways in the planning and construction processes. Road safety audits measure a proactive means for transportation agencies to diagnose safety deficiencies before crashes and injuries occur. Public agencies with a desire to enhance the safety performance of roadways underneath their jurisdiction will be be excited concerning the concept of RSAs. Road safety audits will be employed in any section of project development from planning to construction. The RSA method is qualitative in nature thus thereShoulder width Shoulder condition Fit of horizontal and vertical curve Volume (Veh/3min) Pavement condition Road markings Sight distance problems Type of sign and condition Protection for pedestrians and bicycle Presence of road side hazard Post mounted delineatorsŠ 2019, IRJET|Impact Factor value: 7.211|ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal|Page 639International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)e-ISSN: 2395-0056Volume: 06 Issue: 06 | June 2019p-ISSN: 2395-0072www.irjet.net4. DATA TRANSFORMATIONParking Street lightData transformation is the process of converts the data into appropriate forms for conducting analysis. The data set used in the study contain both continous values and discrete values. There for the discrete values has to be classified accordingly, which is shown in Table 5.4 The table shows the classification values for the corresponding attributes.Speed(kmph) No of curve No.of intersectionTable -2: Description and type of variablesAccident numberAttribute3. STUDY AREAWidth of road Shoulder width Horizontal and verticalIn order to find out the deficiencies in the road stretch a road safety inspection is conducted on the two study stretches were selected for conducting road safety auditing. It is the State Highway SH 74(17 KM) and SH 50 (15 KM). Recent crash data shows that occurrence of accident in these road stretch is very high. highway 74.Vazhakode to Pazhayannur is a State Highway in Kerala that starts in Vazhakode and ends in Alathur. This road connects important towns Chelakkara and Pazhayannur. The study stretch sis of 17 Km road stretch. For conducting the road safety audit road sections are divided into different section on the basis of geometry (500m each section).Crash spot is identified based on the accident details collected from the police stations. This is a road stretch with a number of horizontal and vertical curves and combined curves. Since crashes in this road stretch is high, therefore it is selected as one of the study area.|Impact Factor value: 7.211Curves Street lightExpressed in numbersContinuousTraffic volume(Veh/31 = With in limit, 2 = Exceeded limitDiscrete1 = Proper, 2 = Poor 0 = No curve, 1 = Good fit, 2 = Very sharp curve, 3 = Sharp bend immediately after summit curve / Sag curve with bend Expressed in m/s 1 = No obstruction, 2 = Fixed objects/ road side stalls, 3 = Poles/ column, trees in hazardous condition 1 = Smooth condition, 2 = Relatively smooth, slight break and rut, 3 = Rough, breaks, rut, potholes, 4 = Rough, severe breakage, rut, pot holes 0 = No intersection, 1 = Single minor road, 2 = Two minor/ Single major road, 3 = Two major road 1 = Proper,DiscreteSpeed Presence of road side hazardPavement CharacterisTicsIntersectionThrough the data collection all the relevant in formations are collected. For this project the data is mainly collected from two sources. That is the crash data is collected from the police station and the primary data is collected through road inventory survey. Road Safety Inspections are carried out to identify traffic hazards related to the road environment characteristics and propose interventions to mitigate the detected hazards. Data is collected on the basis of prepared checklist.Š 2019, IRJETContinuous Continuous ContinuousFitness of horizontal and vertical curve3.1 Road Inventory SurveyPavement markings Sign boards|RatingWidth of road (m) Width of shoulder(m) Expressed in numbersMin) VisibilityOttupara to Vellarakkad is another State Highway in Kerala, that starts in Chavakkad and ends in Wadakkanchery. Recent crash data shows that crashes on this road stretch is very high, hence 15 Km road stretch from Ottupara to Vellarakkad is choosen as the study area. Road Safety Inspections (RSI) are carried out to identify traffic hazards related to the road environment characteristics and propose interventions to mitigate the detected hazards and done under the guide lines of IRC codes [17].DescriptionDiscreteContinuous DiscreteDiscreteDiscreteDiscrete2 = Partially removed, 3= Completely remove 1 = Proper, 2 = Faded sign boards 3 = Not provided where traffic is high, 4 = No warning at hazardous situationsISO 9001:2008 Certified JournalDiscrete|Page 640International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)e-ISSN: 2395-0056Volume: 06 Issue: 06 | June 2019p-ISSN: 2395-0072www.irjet.net5. CRASH ANALYSISVazhakode, Uthuvady. Fatal accident is high in Vazhakode, Kanjirakkode and Erumapetty.The increase in motorization accompanied with expansion of road network has brought with it the challenge of addressing the adverse influence of road traffic accidents. Road accidents are a global cataclysm with ever raising trend which pose a public health and development challenge and greatly affect the human capital development of every nation. Five tear crash details is collected from the police station and based on that crash analysis is done. 5.1 . LOCATION BASED CRASH ANALYSIS The Fig. 1. showing the sample of location based crash analysis. It shows the number of crashes occurred in the first 6 section ie, from the chainage (0- 3Km).Similarly the number of crashes occurred in the whole section is find out based on the crash details collected from the police station. From that the sections were maximum number of crashes are identified. Occurrence of accident in these road stretch is very high due to the presence of many sharp contributing the spate of accidents and had made it into an accident prone area. Most of the motorist especially unfamiliar drivers fail to notice the curve and end up crashing. Most of the crashes at this location happened due to high speed and often it turned out of human error also. From the crash analysis it can be found out that the sections with steep and combined curves are crash prone spots, and it is mainly due to poor visibility. In some stretches the bus stops are provided very closer to intersection.Fig -2: Severity based crash analysis The collection and use of accurate and comprehensive data related to road crashes is very important to road safety management. The various factors which leads to road crashes are studied and the locations with most number of occurrence of accidents are identified. 6. MODELING A model help to explain a system and the effects of different components (independent variable) with that the predictions and behavior can be understand. The quality of the study will depend on how well the mathematical model developed on the theoretical side agree with the actual conditions. In this study it aim to model a relationship between the weighted severity index and the various parameters selected for the study.6.1 CORRELATION Correlation analysis is done in order to identify top correlated attributes Spearman rank correlation. Correlation analysis is a method of statistical evaluation used to study the strength of a relationship between two, numerically measured, continuous variables. If correlation is found between two variables it means that when there is a systematic change in one variable, there is also a systematic change in the other. Table -3: Correlation table Variables Correlations Visibility 0.599** No. of curves 0.335** Intersection 0.587** Presence of road side 0.329** hazard Pavement condition 0.518** Sign board 0.634** Pavement markings 0.436** Fitness of curve 0.288* Shoulder width 0.250* ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 levelFig -1: Location based crash analysis 5.2 SEVERITY BASED CRASH ANALYSIS The Fig.2 showing sample of the severity based crash analysis. It represents the accident severity for the first 0 to 3Km chainage. Similarly the crash severity for the whole study area is found out with the help of accident data collected from the police station and the details collected from the local people. From the analysis it is observed that most of the accident occurred is of grevious type and the highest is in Nelluvai,Š 2019, IRJET|Impact Factor value: 7.211|ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal|Page 641International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)e-ISSN: 2395-0056Volume: 06 Issue: 06 | June 2019p-ISSN: 2395-0072www.irjet.net6.2 FACTOR ANALYSISCC = 0.845 ∗Fit of curve+0.503∗SignboardFactor analysis is a method of data reduction. It does this by seeking underlying unobservable (latent) variables that are reflected in the observed variables (manifest variables). There are many different methods that can be used to conduct a factor analysis (such as principal axis factor, maximum likelihood, generalized least squares, unweighted least squares), There are also many different types of rotations that can be done after the initial extraction of factors, including orthogonal rotations, such as varimax and equimax, which impose the restriction that the factors cannot be correlated, and oblique rotations, such as promax, which allow the factors to be correlated with one another. Simple structure is pattern of results such that each variable loads highly onto one and only one factor. Rotated factor matrix contains the rotated factor loadings (factor pattern matrix), which represent both how the variables are weighted for each factor but also the correlation between the variables and the factor which is shown in Table 4. Because these are correlations, possible values range from -1 to +1.Parameter Visibility Intersection Pavement condition Pavement markings Fitness of curve No. of curves Sign board Shoulder widthComponent 3 -0.681---0.845 0.633 0.503 -0.759---0.585Presence of road side hazardFive years accident data were analyzed to obtain the most accident prone locations using WSI method by assigning scores based on the number and severity of accidents at that particular location in the last five years. Weighted Severity Index (WSI), WSI = (1 x MI) + (4 x GI) + (41 x K) Where, K - No of fatality GI - is the number of grievous injuries MI - is the number of minor injuries Table -5: Ranking of road stretches based on WSI0-4 5-41 > 41Classification value 1 2 3Condition of road stretch Low Risk Medium Risk High RiskThere for the regression analysis is done on the basis of weighted severity index as the independent parameter.6.4 REGRESSION MODELING In statistics, linear regression is a linear approach for modelling the relationship between a scalar dependent variable and one or more explanatory variables (or independent variables). The case of one explanatory variable is called simple linear regression. For more than one explanatory variable, the process is called multiple linear regression. In linear regression, the relationships are modeled using linear predictor functions whose unknown model parameters are estimated from the data. Such models are called linear models. Values of R2 is between 0 and 1. In this case two third data is taken for regression analysis.The coefficient of determination, R2, is used to analyze how differences in one variable can be explained by a difference in a second variable. R2, is the square of the correlation coefficient. It gives an idea of how many data points fall within the results of the line formed by the regression equation which is shown in Table 6Here in this case he first five features can be grouped together ie, Visibility, Intersection, Pavement characteristics, Conditions of road markings, Fitness of curve and it can be named Roadway characteristics (RC). The second component includes Fit-ness of curve, number of curves, condition of sign board and it comes under Curve characteristics and Sign conditions CC). The third component include shoulder width and Presence of road side hazard and it can be called as road side features component include Shoulder width and Presence of road side hazard and it can be called as road side features(RS). Therefore Roadway characteristics(RC) RC = 0.781 ∗Visibility+0.771∗Intersection+0.720∗Pavement condition+0.681 ∗Road Markings Eqn.[1] Curve characteristics and Sign conditions (CC)© 2019, IRJET|Impact Factor value: 7.211of6.3 ANALYSIS OF DATA USING WSI METHODRatingComponent 2 -∗Number Eqn[2]Road side features (RS) RS = 0.759 ∗Shoulder width−0.585 ∗Presence of road side hazards Eqn[3]Table -4: Rotated componant matrix Component 1 0.781 0.771 0.720curve+0.633|ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal|Page 642International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)e-ISSN: 2395-0056Volume: 06 Issue: 06 | June 2019p-ISSN: 2395-0072www.irjet.netTable -6: Regression coefficientsModel• No sign board • Shoulder width is 2.1m • No road side hazardUnstandardized BTSig.0.1024.2260.000Constant RC0.2569.4810.000CC0.1932.3410.024RS0.2253.2340.002Table -8: Application of RSA modelClass of road = 0.102+ (0.256 ∗RC+0.193 ∗CC+0.225 ∗RS) Eqn[4] The higher the coefficient, the higher percentage of points the line passes through when the data points and line are plotted. A higher regression coefficient indicates a better goodness of fit for the observations. The usefulness of R2 is its ability to find the likelihood of future events falling within the predicted outcomes. While conducting the regression analysis the R2 value obtained is 0.773 as shown in Table 7. Higher the value of R square, better the model. The obtained value of R2 is 0.773 it means 77.3 percent of the points should fall within the regression. Table -7: Summary ofR2ModelRR210.8790.773Poor visibility0.7812Intersection with two major road0.7713Pavement relatively smooth with slight break0.7202Partially removed markings0.6812Sharp curve0.8452Number of curves is 30.6333No sign board0.5034Shoulder width0.7592.1No road side hazard-0.5851By substituting the corresponding values of these road sections into the road safety model the rank of the road will obtain i.e. Class of road = 0.102+ (0.256* 6.677+ 0.193* 5.601 + 0.225* 1.0089) = 3.119 3.119 ≈ 3 Hence road is classified as High Risk6.6 APPLICATION OF RSM7. GIS TOOLS FOR ROAD SAFETY MANAGEMENTLet’s take a road stretch with the following condition. The corresponding values of each parameter is substituted in the regression model. Using this model the ranking of the road stretch can be find out. The features of this segment is shown in Table 8.Geographic Information System (GIS) is a specific integrated system of hardware, software and analysis tools designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyse, manage, and present all types of spatial or geographical data. In a general sense, GIS is a tool which has been employed for integration of spatial and non-spatial data. GIS applications allow users to create interactive queries (user-created searches), analyze spatial information, edit data in maps, and present the results of all these operations. Road network map along with attribute data pertaining to the study area were created in ArcGIS• Poor visibility • Intersection with two major road • Partially removed pavement markings • Pavement with slight break and rut • Sharp curve • Stretch with 3 curvesImpact Factor value: 7.211Classificatio n valuesRoad safety model(RSM) obtained is RSM = 0.102+ (0.256 ∗RC+0.193 ∗CC+0.225 ∗RS)Remaining one third data is checked for validity. Along with these data 5Km stretch of another State Highway in Thrissur is added and the validation is checked. Then the average root mean square error is calculated. The obtained root mean square error for the model is 0.21.|Factor scoreRC = 0.781∗2+0.771∗3+0.720∗2+0.681∗2 = 6.67 CC = 0.845∗2+0.633∗3+0.503∗4 = 5.6 RS = 0.759∗2.1∗(−0.585)∗1 = 1.02 Road safety model (RSM) obtained is RSM = 0.102+(0.256∗RC+0.193∗CC+0.225∗RS) Eqn[5]6.5 MODEL VALIDITY© 2019, IRJETFactors|ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal|Page 643International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)e-ISSN: 2395-0056Volume: 06 Issue: 06 | June 2019p-ISSN: 2395-0072www.irjet.net7.2. Thematic Representation of Ottupara to Vellarakkad In ArcGISenvironment. Accident spots derived from weighted severity (WSI) method were prioritized in GIS, to obtain the most vulnerable accident spots in the study area. Based on the regression model with rating based on Weighted Severity Index as independent parameter each section of road is classified and displayed in ArcGIS. Both the road stretches in the study area are coming
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