of 34

Lucrare de Diploma | Federalism | Federation

27 views
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Description
On privire de ansamblu asupra sistemelor politice, definitii, descrieri, clasificari. A general description of the political system, institutions, ...sorry guys the last part is missing, about UK political system)
Tags
Transcript
  CONTENTS CHAPTER I ...................................................................................................................................................2GOVERNMENT AND POLITCS. POLITICAL DELIMITATION. HOW COULD ONE DEFINEPOLITICS?.....................................................................................................................................................2THE POLITICAL EXECUTIVE .................................................................................................................10POLITICAL PARTIES ................................................................................................................................20CHAPTER IV ..............................................................................................................................................23DEMOCRACY AND GOVERNMENT IN THE UK. HISTORIC BACKGROUND; THE FIRST SIGNSOF THE PRESENT PARLIAMENT............................................................................................................23 CONCLUSIONS: ....................................................................................................................................28 BIBLIOGRAPHY: ..........................................................................................................................................29  CHAPTER I GOVERNMENT AND POLITCS. POLITICAL DELIMITATION. HOWCOULD ONE DEFINE POLITICS? When trying to define the meaning of “politics” we most usually face twomajor problems. Many people may see clearly that subjects like economics,geography, history and biology are simply academic subjects, but when itcomes to politics people perceives it with preconceptions. Many, for thisreason see it as hard to give an objective definition in an impartial anddispassionate manner. The first thing about politics that comes to people’smind it is that of trouble making, of disorder, corruption or manipulation; infact if we go back to 1775, Samuel Johnson described politics as “the meansof rising in the world”.Politics, in its broader sense is in fact the activity through which peoplemake, preserve and amend the general rules under which they live. Politics isthus inextricably linked to the phenomena of conflict and cooperation.Major concepts remain at the forefront discussion in a way that doesnot normally apply to more scientific disciplines. Political analyse is far morethan pure opinion; yet even so it is hard to provide a more strictly onlyscientifically approach of the topic. It is therefore hard to provide definitions,it is rather more a matter of providing contrasting perspectives on the subject.Political science through its main functions- such as the explicative,interpretative, evaluative, prospective- give solutions and interpretations asmuch on theoretically as practically. Politological research’s main concern isto explain and interpret the phenomena and the political procedures.The state, its institutions, the individual and collective actors, theelections, the political decisions, revolutions, ideologies etc. are beinganalysed, analytically and synthetically, theoretically and empirically. On thefundament of these analyses though, on the political and moral set of valuesfollowed, the politologues are making evaluations, predictions andrecommendations regarding the improvement of the local and centralgovernment, the development of the political processes etc.The scientifically objectivity, the subjective partition and the self engagement are interconnected; they should favour the epistemologicalobjectivity, the inter-conditioning of the social systems and the historicaldevelopment tendencies.It is in this way that the political science may give realistic goals and, inthe same time, cognitive instruments efficient enough for the politicalinteraction. 2  Politics might most probably be described as the activity through whichdifferent groups get together and try to take collective decisions by seekingcommon solutions within the group and for the interest of the group. Mostcommonly it may be defined as “who gets what, when, why and how”.Politics is the process whereby a group of people, whose opinions or interestsare initially divergent, come to a generally accepted decision which finally isenforced as common policy.So, could one establish the boundaries of politics? Would one consider the fact of invading another country as a matter of politics? Would countriesinvade one other if they were to dispose of indefinite resources? Is politicsstrictly reserved to the government or does it interact to the people’s lives,families or even analogous groups?It is therefore noteworthy the fact that politics arises from the necessitythat people have for a shared life. People need to make collective decisionsabout sharing resources, relating to other groups or making plans for thefuture.From the members of the family trying to decide over where to take avacation to the decisions on the top political level concerning a possible war or relating to the climate’s warmth or other major political decisions wealways relate to politics.So, the more we try to define it the harder it is to see through it and totry to define it. It is merely impossible to set boundaries to such a complexand nuanced thing as politics .Perhaps the closest we could come with the definition of politics is: the process through which groups try to reach collective decisions by seeking inthe same time to find and reconcile with the members within the group.It is probably also one major point of the politics: people not alwaysagree; in fact were we all to agree all the time, politics should be redundant!The way to come to an end is through persuasion and discussion.The Greek philosopher, Aristotle (384-322) considered that “man is bynature a political animal”. In other words, he meant by this that man is not just unavoidable but that he is the essential human activity; politicalengagement is by far what separates us from other species! He argues thatman can only express their meaning by participating in the political life andeventually be able to come to consensus through participation andinvolvement. Aristotle considered politics as the “master science”, the activitythrough which people agree and try to improve their lives and create the GoodSociety. Politics is most of all a social activity, a dialogue through which people agree and disagree but it is never a monologue. 3  Defining government. Traditional systems of classification “That government is best which governs not at all.” Henry David Thoreau Civil Disobedience (1849)Fist of all, how can one define “government” and what would be thedifference between the “political systems” or “regimes” and “a government”?Usually when referring to “government” we speak about collective and binding decisions that are being made by certain official institutions and their constitutional way; as a result when defining the government we not onlyrefer to the institutions of the state but also to the process through which theyinteract with the society.Who rules?RulersOne person the few the manyWho benefits?All Fig. 1.1   Aristotle’s six forms of government A political system is, in effect, a subsystem of the larger social system.It is a “system” in that there are interrelationships within a complex whole,and “political” in that these interrelationships relate to the distribution of  power, wealth and resources in society. Political regimes can thus becharacterized as effectively by the organization of economic life as they are by the governmental processes through which they operate.A regime is therefore a “system of rules” that endures despite the factthat governments come and go. Whereas governments can be changed byelections, through dynastic succession, as a result of coups d’etat, and so on,regimes can be changed only by military intervention from without or bysome kind of revolutionary upheaval from within.As a result, one may say that the solving of people’s decision making isa matter of government; in order to come to this end people join differentgroups and most countries develop some kind of collective work. Groupsmust not only reach decisions on their common affairs, they must also work out how such decisions are to be reached. The question of who decides raisesthe question of government. Nearly all large societies develop some kind of institutions for making and enforcing collective decisions. These bodies arethe government. 4
Related Search
Advertisements
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks