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Malayan Heritage | Philippines | Cebu

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Malayan Heritage by Sir Oandasan \ \ Ref: Zaide.
  Philippine HistoryMalayan HeritageA. Food and Drinks Rice – staple food of the FilipinosOther foods: Carabao meat, pork, chicken, sea turtles, fish,bananas, etc.Cook and store food and water in earthen pots and bamboo tubes.Ate with fingersThey made fireWines:tuba – coconut winebasi – sugarcane – Ilocanopangasi – fermented rice – Bisayanlambanog – cocnut palm – Tagalogtapuy – rice - Igorot B. Mode of Dressing MenKangan – collarless, short-sleeved jacketBahag – strip of cloth wrapped around the waist and legsPutong – a piece of cloth wound around the headNo shoesJewelry – gold necklace, gold armlets (kalombigas), and gold ankletsfilled with precious stonesWomenBaro – wide-sleeved jacketPatadyong – a cotton cloth wrapped around their waist thatextends to the feet.Jewels – gold necklace, bracelet, earrings and tings filed withgems.-they are both barefoot- inserted gold between teeth C. House Materials: Wood, bamboo, palm leavesBatalan – a gallery where the jars of water and othersThey have tree houses and boathouses D. Natural courtesy and politeness Equal rank – remove putongSuperior – Remove putong, hang on left, bowConversation: uses “po”Walking together: men behind women- bathe daily – sunset hour, when everything is done- wash their feet before entering the house E. Amusement/ Music/ Dances - Filipinos are fond of merriment- celebrate good harvest, wedding, religious sacrifice and victory inwar- games: carabao race, wrestling, fencing, boat-race, stonethrowing contest Some musical instruments Kudyapi – Taglog guitarKalaleng – Tinggian nose fluteKulintang – Moro xylophoneTultogan – Bisayan bamboo drumSiulbay – Ilocano reed fluteSuracan – Subanun cymbal Dances and songs express aspects of life such as love, war, labor,religion and deathKumintang – Tagalog love danceMahinhin – Tagalog courtship danceDandansoy – Bisayan tuba danceKinnotan – Ilocano art’s dancePaujalay – Moro wedding danceTadek – Tinggian love danceDallu – Negrito religious songAyog-ku – Igorot serenade songBactal – Tagbanua death songDallot – Ilocano ballad songTudob – Agusan harvest song F. Marriage customs/ ceremony - Custom: Marry within own rank (nobleman to a noblewoman)- no strict prohibition- bigaykaya – a dowry given by the groom to the bride beforemarriage- The boy renders service to the girl’s family before marriage- a priestess officiates the union of couples and when ceremony isover, rice is thrown to all the guests.- They practiced divorce on the ff. grounds: 1) adultery of wife 2)desertion of husband, 3) loss of affection, 4) cruelty, 5) insanity,and 6) childlessness G. Government/ Laws Barangay – refers to settlements and is considered independentkingdom - from “balangay” a sailboat used by Malays in going tothe Philippines - consisted of 100 families - Big barangays Sugbu (Cebu) , Maktan (Mactan), Bigan(Vigan), Maynila (Manila) – more than 2,000 families - Datu, hari, rajah – leader of barangay – obtainedposition by inheritance - Chief executive, legislator and judge- There was no national government, only independent barangays- There were oral and written laws- ugali – customs that serves as oral laws handed down from onegeneration to generation- written laws – promulgated by the datus- umalahokan – barangay crier to announce the written laws- the only written laws were from H. Religion - except Muslims in Mindanao, ancient Filipinos werepagans - Bathala – supreme God, creator of heaven and earth- Below are other gods and goddesses - Anitos/ diwatas early Filipinos worship ancestralspirits - Katalona/ baylana – offers sacrifice to the anitos - Animistic – worship of nature (mountains, rivers,trees etc.  - Belief in life after death (good soul – kalualhatian;bad soul – kasamaan) I. Burial and Mourning Customs - burial customs exist because of life after death likeEgyptians - larao – a mourning customs for a deceased datu - every activity is suspended at the death of datusuch as harvest, war, quarrels and travels J. Superstition asuang – a witch in the form of animalsmangkukulam – cause people to die by pricking a toy with magic pintianak – a creature that sucks blood through its elongatedproboscisTigbalang – appears in the form of dog, horse or old man to deceivehis victimsanting-anting – amulets that make the owner invulnerable to ironweaponsgayuma – a love potion which arouse a woman’s affection K. Languages/ Writing/ Literature/ Education - we belong to the Malayo-Polynesian language – mother tongue ofthe Pacific races- Filipinos have various languagesSipol – a sharp, pointed iron instrument used for writing- they wrote in leaves and tree barks- wrote from left to right- with 3 vowels (a, e-I, o-u), 14 consonants (b, k, d, g, h, l, m, n, ng,p, s, t, v, y) Oral literature – 1) myths and legends on srcin of man, woman,animals, plants etc, 2) songs and poems on deeds of heroes 3)fables and proverbs (sawikain), riddles (bugtong)Existing oral literature – Darangan – Maranao, Hud-hud – Ifugao,Biag ni Lam-ang – IlokanosEducation, mostly informal in which children study in the homesFormal education existed in Panay, Bothoan – a regular barangayschool teaching Sanskrit language, reading, writing, arithmetic, waretc. L. Arts/ Sciences/ Weights and Measures/ Calendars - Architecture of bahay kubo and other houses suitable fortropical climate- painted their bodies with colorful artworks such as animals andother geometrical figures- they also cared statues and designs of boats and houses- they knew the value of medicinal plants, medicine was associatedwith magic- Astronomy was also known especially applied to sailing boats inthe direction of moon and stars- Engineering – built irrigation, ditches, rice terraces and forts. Mathematics – counting – isa (1), puo (10), daan (100), libo (1000),angao (million), kati (ten million) gahala (one hundred million)- talaro – a kind of balance for weights and scalesKaban – 25 gantasSalop – one gantaKaguitna – ½ gantaGatang – 1 chupaDipa – length of the tip of thumb until the middle finger extendedTumuro – length of the tip of the thumbSandamak – length of the with of the hand with five fingerspressed togetherSandali – width of one finger Calendars Bisayan calendar – 12 months a year, 7 days a week, 30 days amonth except last month which has 26, 356 days a year.Ifugao calendar – 13 months and 364 days a year, 28 days a month. M. Domestic and Foreign Trade/ Coinage Piloncitos – conical shaped ancient gold coins found between Bataanand ManilaBarter – a trade practice by exchanging goods instead of money- Ancient Filipinos traded with China, Japan, Siam (Thailand),Malacca, India, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and other Oriental lands.- The Chinese found that Filipinos were honest in trade relations(Ju-kua, 1225 and Wang Tayuan, 1349) N. Agriculture and Industries 2 methods of farming1. kaingin method – land was cleared through burning and holeswere dug through stick and the seed is allowed to grow there2. regular tillage – use of wooden plows and carabaos, irrigation(Ifugao)- There was private and public ownership of land- Industries include: fishing, mining, lumber, weaving, metalwork,weaponry, wine-making, poultry and stock-raising. Values: 1.Ancients Filipinos were already highly civilized anddeveloped culture with arts and sciences, government educationetc.2.Ancient Filipinos were free from foreign domination3.They live peacefully within their kingdom and inrelationship with others because they like to have good relations
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