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Pesticide risk assessment and management in a globally changing world—report from a European interdisciplinary workshop

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Pesticide risk assessment and management in a globally changing world—report from a European interdisciplinary workshop
  Pesticide risk assessment and management in a globallychanging world. Report from a Europeaninterdisciplinary workshop M. Babut, G. Arts, A. Barra Caracciolo, N. Carluer, N. Domange, N. Friberg,V. Gouy, M. Grung, L. Lagadic, F. Martin Laurent, et al. To cite this version: M. Babut, G. Arts, A. Barra Caracciolo, N. Carluer, N. Domange, et al.. Pesticide risk assess-ment and management in a globally changing world. Report from a European interdisciplinaryworkshop. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Springer Verlag, 2013, 20 (11), p.8298 - p. 8312.  < 10.1007/s11356-013-2004-3 > .  < hal-00939126 > HAL Id: hal-00939126https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00939126 Submitted on 30 Jan 2014 HAL  is a multi-disciplinary open accessarchive for the deposit and dissemination of sci-entific research documents, whether they are pub-lished or not. The documents may come fromteaching and research institutions in France orabroad, or from public or private research centers.L’archive ouverte pluridisciplinaire  HAL , estdestin´ee au d´epˆot et `a la diffusion de documentsscientifiques de niveau recherche, publi´es ou non,´emanant des ´etablissements d’enseignement et derecherche fran¸cais ou ´etrangers, des laboratoirespublics ou priv´es.  CONFERENCE REPORT Pesticide risk assessment and management in a globallychanging world  —  report from a Europeaninterdisciplinary workshop Marc Babut  &  Gertie H. Arts  &  Anna Barra Caracciolo  &  Nadia Carluer  & Nicolas Domange  &  Nikolai Friberg  &  Véronique Gouy  &  Merete Grung  & Laurent Lagadic  &  Fabrice Martin-Laurent  &  Nicolas Mazzella  & Stéphane Pesce  &  Benoit Real  &  Stefan Reichenberger  &  Erwin W. M. Roex  & Kees Romijn  &  Manfred Röttele  &  Marianne Stenrød  &  Julien Tournebize  & Françoise Vernier  &  Eric Vindimian Received: 4 July 2013 /Accepted: 10 July 2013 # The Author(s) 2013. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Introduction Global change, in particular climate change, will affect agri-culture worldwide in many ways: increased drought or flooding amplitude and frequency, variable temperature in-creases, loss of natural depuration of waters, soil erosion, lossof soil carbon content, invasion by alien species, increased pest events, changes in plant phenology, increased sensitivityofcropstostressanddiseasesetc.(Fisher etal.2005; Howdenet al. 2007). These anticipated or even already occurringstresses raise concerns about the sustainability of productionand the ability of agriculture to feed human populations. Allthese changes could lead to an increased use of pesticides(Kattwinkel et al. 2011). Moreover, demographic pressurecontinues to rise, in particular in tropical and sub-tropicalregions, where greater threats to agriculture and food Responsible editor: Philippe GarriguesM. Babut ( * ) :  N. Carluer  :  V. Gouy : S. PesceIrstea, UR MALY, 5 rue de la Doua, CS70077,69626 Villeurbanne, Francee-mail: marc.babut@irstea.fr G. H. ArtsAlterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47,6700 AAWageningen, The NetherlandsA. Barra CaraccioloWater Research Institute, National Research Council, CNR-IRSA,Via Salaria km 29, 300, Rome, Italy N. DomangeDAST, ONEMA, 5 Square Félix Nadar, 94300 Vincennes, France N. FribergDepartment of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark M. Grung NIVA, Gaustadalléen 21, 0349 Oslo, NorwayL. LagadicÉquipe Écotoxicologie et Qualité des Milieux Aquatiques,Agrocampus Ouest, INRA UMR 0985 Ecologie et Santé desEcosystèmes, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, 35042 Rennes Cedex, FranceF. Martin-Laurent INRA UMR 1347 Agroécologie, 17 rue Sully, BP 86510,21065 Dijon, France N. MazzellaIrstea, UR REBX, 50 avenue de Verdun  –   Gazinet,33612 Cestas, FranceB. RealARVALIS  –   Institut du Végétal, CS 30200, Estrées Mons,80208 Peronne, FranceS. Reichenberger Footways S.A.S., 10 avenue Buffon,45071 Orléans Cedex 2, FranceE. W. M. RoexDeltares, P.O. Box 85467, 3508 AL Utrecht, The NetherlandsK. RomijnBayer SAS Environmental Sciences, 16 rue Jean Marie Leclair,69009 Lyon, FranceM. RötteleBetter Decisions, Haverlandhöhe 21a, 48249 Dülmen, GermanyEnviron Sci Pollut ResDOI 10.1007/s11356-013-2004-3  sustainability are anticipated by the IntergovernmentalPanel on Climate Change (IPCC) (Easterling et al. 2007).These trends will certainly lead to mounting conflicts in-volving water uses (irrigation versus drinking water pro-duction or freshwater ecosystem maintenance, sanitationetc.) and food production. This appeals to an  “ ecologicallyintensive agriculture ”  (Griffon 2006), i.e. a sustainableagriculture providing ecosystem services more efficientlythan today and causing fewer adverse impacts on the envi-ronment and water resources.With EU Directive 2009/128/EC (EC 2009a) enforcement,requesting Member States to adopt action plans aiming toreduce risks and impacts related to pesticide uses, there will be a focus in the public and political debates in Europe onachieving a more sustainable use of pesticides. This shouldconsequently lead to a reduction of the risks or impacts of  pesticides on the environment. In Europe, there is currently astrong focus on source (including dose) reduction. This ap- proach may nevertheless be too restrictive if the goal is toreduce the agriculture footprint while maintaining or increas-ing yield. Depending on the chemical properties of pesticidesas well as environmental factors, decreasing the amounts of  pesticides applied to crops will not automatically produce adecrease in the risk to non-target species or water supply.How could society meet the challenge of the forthcomingclimate change? What adaptations should be envisaged for agriculture/pesticide risk management (RM)? These changeswill probably have a profound effect on agricultural systems(crop selection, farming practices etc.) and to a lesser extent influence the fate and effects of chemicals (Schiedek et al.2007).These questions havebeen addressed bytwo Europeanresearchnetworks,namelyEuraqua(theEuropeanNetworkof Freshwater Research Organisations, http://www.euraqua.org/ )and PEER (Partnership for European EnvironmentalResearch, http://www.peer.eu/ ), which organised a workshopaiming to identify research needs and strategies induced bythese questions in October 2011 in Montpellier, France.The workshop's specific goals were to (1) discuss the pesticide risk assessment (RA) approach, its limitations (e.g.spatial scale and multi-stress situations), the connections be-tween different policies (pesticide regulation and Water Framework Directive), the use of models, (2) review integrat-ed practices and innovative technologies which could or areintended to reduce pesticides' environmental impacts and (3)contribute to the future research and development agenda.This review summarises the workshop discussions. Climate change Implications for ecosystemsThe Earth's average surface temperatureispredictedtorise at afaster rate than previously experienced by human civilisation(Parmesan & Yohe 2003; Thomas et al. 2004). Furthermore, the global water cycle is altered by climate change, which inturn affects local aquatic ecosystems (Vörösmarty et al. 2010).Although there are major uncertainties in the estimates of climate change, future shifts in hydrological regimes and in-creased temperatures are likely to place considerable environ-mental stress on many natural systems in the near future.Profound changes have already been reported from manyvulnerable ecosystems in recent decades (e.g. (Schofieldet al.2010)) andbyinference from experimental studies,either natural (e.g. (Woodward et al. 2010)) or in man-made set-ups(e.g. (Ledger et al. 2013)). The effects of climate change will permeate all levels of biological organisation, from species toecosystem-level impacts. Several studies have demonstratedenhanced toxicity for organisms not adapted to increased tem- peratures (Ferrando et al. 1987; Lydy et al. 1999; Prato et al. 2008). Subtle changes in environmental conditions or keyspecies abundance can cause shifts in species populationranges (e.g. (Levinsky et al. 2007)) as well as impacts onecological networks (Meerhoff et al. 2007; Woodwardet al. 2010; Ledger et al. 2013). Elevated temperatures are likely to increase overall metabolism and nutrient up-take of freshwater ecosystems, making them susceptible toeutrophication (Demars et al. 2011). Furthermore, coldstenotherms will disappear, and this could alter beta-diversity (Woodward et al. 2010; Friberg et al. 2013). Experiments have shown that the entire food web structurecan collapse with the loss of apex predators under drought conditions (e.g. (Ledger et al. 2013)).However, uncertainties surrounding climate change im- pacts remain high, as stressed by a recent SETAC workshop(Stahl et al. 2013): (1) human-mediated mitigation of, andadaptation to, climate change impacts may have as muchinfluence on the fate and distribution of chemicals as climatechange, and modelled predictions should be interpreted cau-tiously. (2) Climate change and chemical toxicity affect eachother mutually.(3) The effects ofclimate changemaybeslow,variableanddifficulttodetect,thoughsomehighlyvulnerable M. Stenrød Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research(Bioforsk), Høgskoleveien 7, 1432 Aas, NorwayJ. TournebizeIrstea, UR HBAN, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, CS 10030,92761 Antony, FranceF. Vernier Irstea, UR ADBX, 50 avenue de Verdun  –   Gazinet,33612 Cestas, FranceE. VindimianIrstea, SGMO, 361 rue Jean-François Breton,34196 Montpellier, FranceEnviron Sci Pollut Res   populations and communities may exhibit responses sooner and more dramatically than others. (4) Future approaches tohuman and ecological RAs will need to incorporate multi- ple stressors and cumulative risks considering the widespectrum of potential impacts stemming from climatechange. (5) Baseline/reference conditions for estimatingresource injury and restoration/rehabilitation will continu-ally shift due to climate change and represent significant challenges to practitioners.The consequences of climate change are a challenge for risk assessors and risk managers, as they will create different ecological communities from the current ones (no-analoguecommunities), makingitdifficulttodefinea priori deviationsfrom reference conditions (Landis et al. 2013). Type IIIerrors, i.e. when a correct analysis is conducted on erroneous premises, are therefore likely to occur. The above-mentionedSETAC workshop pointed out four fundamental consider-ations that could help risk assessors to cope with climatechange (Landis et al. 2013): (1) consider interactions amongstressors, including those related to climate change  —  newtemperature and precipitation regimes, modified hydrologi-cal processes; (2) adopt more appropriate regulatory end- points than the current hazard quotient or its variant; (3)develop an understanding of stochasticity, tipping pointsand multi-stressor interactions; and (4) given that biologicalresponses to environmental stressors will likely be nonlinear,specially under climate change, the previous reliance on nullhypothesis models needs to be discarded. Furthermore, theseauthors develop different principles for guiding future RAs,in particular to consider the importance of climate change-related factors in the RA process and subsequent manage-ment decisions because climate change will not always be animportant factor in future RAs, to express assessment end- points as ecosystem services, to consider positive as well asadverse responses of ecosystem services (endpoints), todevelop multiple-stressor approaches and to implement conceptual cause  –  effect diagrams that consider relevant management decisions as well as appropriate spatial andtemporal scales to allow consideration of both direct andindirect effects of climate change. They also suggest iden-tifying the major drivers of uncertainty and continuing the process as management activities are implemented, andfinally plan for adaptive management to account for chang-ing environmental conditions and consequent changes toecosystem services.Implications for agriculture and potential consequencesfor pesticide emissionsThe possible direct effects of climate change on the diffuseemissions of pesticides are difficult to estimate because of the uncertainties associated with the forecast of climatechange itself and the fact that the anticipated effects can becontradictory (Jacob et al. 2007). Indeed, changes in theseasonal variation of rainfall, its intensity and frequency,can lead to a decrease in the spring and winter rainy event occurrence, but also to an increase in their intensity. Themajority of predictions agree that, in addition to an increasein temperature, spring will become wetter in North-WesternEurope, whereas the frequency of extreme precipitationevents will increase in summer (e.g. (Lehner et al. 2006)).This change in climate will increase surface run-off events in periods when agricultural production is high and could leadtoanincreasedriskofpesticideexposureoftheaquaticbiota.A temperature increase can imply a subsequent rise in the biodegradation rates of chemicals, in both aquatic and ter-restrial ecosystems. In freshwater ecosystems, increasingtemperature will reduce their ability to cope with increasednutrient levels (Friberg et al. 2009; Jeppesen et al. 2010). In soil ecosystems, biodegradation is dependent on sufficient soil moisture (Bouseba et al. 2009). Climate change alongwith intensive and unsustainable agricultural practices con-tribute to soil degradation and loss of biodiversity (Jefferyet al. 2010; Turbé et al. 2010). The ability of soil and water to recover from pesticide contamination is primarily dependent on the presence of an abundant and diverse microbial com-munity with the ability to remove contaminants (BarraCaracciolo et al. 2013). The sensitivity or resilience of eco-systems tochemicals mightalso beaffected.At theEuropeanscale, climate change impacts are likely to lead to contrastedoutcomes. Future projected trends in European agricultureinclude a northward shift of crop suitability zones and in-creasing crop productivity in Northern Europe, but declining productivity and crop viability in southern areas (Olesen &Bindi 2002; Falloon & Betts 2010). Climate change impacts differpercropandperCO 2 emissionscenario; whereas crops planted in autumn and winter may benefit from the increas-ing CO 2  concentrations, those planted in spring may benefit less because of the increasing temperature and reduced rain-fall (Supit et al. 2012). Climate change will alter the envi-ronmental conditions for crop growth and require adjust-ments in management practices at the field scale such asirrigation and fertilisation. These factors can be modelledusing cropgrowthmodels,butthecurrentlyavailable modelsare not able to simulate biotic components of croppingsystems, especially pests, plant diseases, weeds and benefi-cial organisms (Bergez et al. 2010; Lehmann et al. 2013). Finally, some (e.g. (Bloomfield et al. 2006; Kattwinkel et al.2011) argue that, over the long term, most of the modifica-tions induced to agricultural systems by climate change will be indirect, i.e. not governed by direct impacts of changes inwater temperature on organisms but by indirect impactsrelated to changes in farming practices, and therefore quitedifficult to anticipate through adaptation measures.In the meantime, it will become even more critical toaddress both quantitative and qualitative aspects in water  Environ Sci Pollut Res
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