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Purification of Surface Water From Orange Peel Wastes | Water Purification | Water

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    Republic of the Philippines BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Pablo Borbon Main II, Alangilan Batangas City College of Engineering, Architecture & Fine Arts www.batstate-u.edu.ph Tel. No. (043) 425-0139 loc. 118 Chemical and Food Engineering Department PURIFICATION OF SURFACE WATER FROM ORANGE PEEL WASTES BY ADSORPTION OF METAL IONS  Nicole Ysabelle S. Aguda Jeanel L. Aldovino John Bryan A. Aldovino ChE  –   4102  I.   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1.   To analyze the effect of the presence of pectin in metal ion containing water 2.   To determine the metal ions reacted with the pectin 3.   To compare the composition of the surface water before and after pectin was introduced II.   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Only 2.5% of water on Earth is considered fresh and it is in no doubt that we are already experiencing water crisis. The available amount of freshwater remains the same, recycled to be reused, but the demands are increasing over time. At this very moment, there are people who have no choice but to drink unsafe water for they have no access to  potable ones. Instead of being able to help them refuel themselves, drinking this kind of water would even make them sick. This issue is very alarming because all living organisms need water. We basically cannot live without water and everyone should have access to safe ones. Orange peels are oftentimes straight to garbage bins after eating the edible part of the fruit. These fruits can be easily acquired and inexpensive. According to World Atlas, the current annual orange production is estimated at 50 million tons. While most people are not aware of the nutrients in orange peel wastes, many people tent to dispose them easily. These small wastes when accumulated all together can cause serious environmental problems especially when not disposed properly. This is another issue that the research is trying to solve.  In order to make these peels useful, we shall make use of the pectin content of the orange peels. This will lessen the damage for the environmental issue and be beneficial to its users.  III.   REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Pectin, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, has in recent years gained increasingly in importance. The benefits of natural pectin are also more and more appreciated by scientists and consumer due to its biodegradability. Pectin is the methylated ester of polygalacturonic acid. It is commercially extracted from citrus peels and apple pomace under mildly acidic conditions. Pectin is one of those compounds which is widely found in plant cell walls. The carboxylic groups of pectin can be applied to bind heavy metals by forming complex compounds that are insoluble in water. Moreover, modification of pectin can be done by crosslinking technique with certain cross-linker agent. In a series of researches the recommendations for application of pectin or pectin-containing substances as efficient adsorption remedies fixing heavy metal ions were suggested. According to SF Gate, the majority of the pectin resides in the citrus peel, but the  pulp also contains some, oranges range from 0.25 to 0.76 percent. IV.   NOVELTY OF THE STUDY In this study, the proponents are planning to make a surface water purifier in the form of tea bags that would be easily used by people by simply putting the tea bag in the water and let it absorb the metal ions. The proponents would like to use the orange peel wastes as the raw materials for this water purifier by drying and powdering them, and   place them in a tea bag. The pectin content of the powdered orange peels is the one responsible for the adsorption of the metal ions from the surface water. After the removal of the metal ions from the surface water, it will become safe to drink, and cause less risk of diseases. Thus, the proponents will be able to provide a particular solution for a rising crisis in available drinking water. People living in impoverished areas will greatly benefit from this research for the raw materials are easily found and inexpensive. V.   BIBLIOGRAPHY    Budi Hastuti, Mudasi , Dwi Siswanta, and Triyono (2015). Preparation and Pb (II) Adsorption properties of Crosslinked Pectin-carboxymethyl Chitosan Film      Mykola T. Kartel, Lidiya A. Kupchik, Batyr K Veisov (1998). Evaluation of Pectin Binding of Heavy Metal Ions in Aqueous Solutions      Pornsak Sriamornsak (2003). Chemistry of Pectin and Its Pharmaceutical Uses: A Review, Silpakorn University International Journal  
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