of 37

Resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, and threats.

0 views
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Description
Longitudinal Prediction of Resilience in Children: Social Constraints on Developmental Success Arnold Sameroff University of Michigan Montreal--October, 2006 Resilience is the process of adapting well
Transcript
Longitudinal Prediction of Resilience in Children: Social Constraints on Developmental Success Arnold Sameroff University of Michigan Montreal--October, 2006 Resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, and threats. It means bouncing back from difficult experiences. American Psychological Association 1 X? Y Children Resilience X Models Social Development Regulation Y 2 Seeking Resilience: Issues 1. Defining Resilience 2. Defining Challenge 3. Can Individual Resilience Overcome Social Challenge? 4. Promoting Resilience 5. Afterthoughts Seeking Resilience: Issue 1 Defining Resilience 3 Definitions of Resilience Adaptive response to extraordinary challenge General Catastrophies war, earthquakes Personal Catastrophies death, divorce Similar to adaptive response to ordinary challenge General Challenges school/3 R s/ Personal Challenges siblings Definitions of Resilience What is relation of adaptation to extraordinary challenge to adaptation to ordinary challenge Premorbid competence predicts postmorbid competence Schizophrenia Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 4 Operationalization of Resilience Resourcefulness Ability to solve problems, bounce back Intelligence (APA Report) Adapt effectively to the environment Learn from experience Overcome obstacles by taking thought Operationalization of Resilience Mental health Everyday adaptations to varying situations Mental illness Lack of everyday adaptation Behavior does not change with situation Poor Regulation of Affect (Depression, Anxiety) Poor Regulation of Behavior (Aggression, Hyperactivity Poor Regulation of Cognition (Attention Problems) 5 Sources of Resilience Characteristics of Individual Resourcefulness Intelligence Mental Health Characteristics of Context Risk Factors Promotive Factors Seeking Resilience: Issue 2 Defining Challenge 6 Rochester Longitudinal Study N~250 Families Data Waves Infancy Preschool Adolescence Adulthood Social Context Model GEOPOLITICAL COMMUNITY FAMILY PARENT SCHOOL CHILD PEERS 7 Ecological Influences Child - Parent Parent Family Social Child-Parent Interaction Developmental Knowledge Parent Psychiatric History Parent Anxiety Education HH Occupation Family Size Single Parent Stressful Life Events Minority Status Multiple Risk Scale Contextual Factor Child-Parent Interaction Developmental Knowledge Parent Psychiatric Contacts Parent Anxiety HH Education HH Occupation Family Size Social Support Stressful Life Events Minority Status High Risk Condition 25% Worst 25% Least 2 or More 25% Most No HS Degree Semi-Skilled 4+ Children Father Absent 25% Most Yes 8 Effect of Risk Score on 4-year IQ Year IQ Environmental Risk Score Effect of Risk Score on 4-year Mental Health 4 ILL 3 SYMPTOMATIC 2 HEALTHY Environmental Risk Score 9 Risk Factor Combinations & IQ Cluster Cluster Cluster Cluster Cluster Mental Health Education Mental Health Anxiety Single Parent Minority Education Knowledge Minority Anxiety Social Support Interaction Minority Occupation Education Going to Scale 10 National Head Start/Public School Early Childhood Transition Demonstration Study 7,515 Children 31 Programs in 30 States Longitudinal Study from Kindergarten to 3 rd Grade 14 Risk Factors 100 Head Start Transition Study Academic Competence X KG Risk Groups 90 Acad Comp - KG Acad Comp - 1ST Acad Comp - 2ND 80 Acad Comp - 3RD Kindergarten Risk Group 11 110 Transition Risk Study - Whole Sample Social Skills - T X KG Risk Groups 110 Transition Risk Study - Whole Sample Social Skills - P X KG Risk Groups Soc Skills - T - ks Soc Skills - T - 1s Mean Soc Skills -T- 2nd Soc Skills -T- 3rd Mean Soc Skills -P- 2nd Soc Skills -P- 3rd Kindergarten Risk Group Kindergarten Risk Group 110 Transition Risk Study - Whole Sample Problem Behavior - T X KG Risk Groups 110 Transition Risk Study - Whole Sample Problem Behavior - P X KG Risk Groups Mean Prob Behav -T- 2nd Prob Behav -T- 3rd Mean Prob Behav -P- 2nd Prob Behav -P- 3rd Kindergarten Risk Group Kindergarten Risk Group Going to Age 12 DEVELOPMENTAL MODEL ADULTHOOD DEVELOPMENT INFANCY CHILDHOOD ADOLESCENCE TIME Contemporary Environmental Risk and IQ 1 Standardized IQ Scores Yr. IQ Environmental Risk Score 13 Contemporary Environmental Risk and IQ 1 Standardized IQ Scores Yr. IQ 13-Yr. IQ Environmental Risk Score Contemporary Environmental Risk and IQ 1 Standardized IQ Scores Yr. IQ 13-Yr. IQ 18-Yr. IQ Environmental Risk Score 14 Longitudinal Correlations for IQ and Mental Health (MH) IQ 4-Year 13-Year 18-Year MH 4-Year 13-Year 18-Year Longitudinal Correlations for IQ and Social Risk IQ 4-Year 13-Year 18-Year RISK 4-Year 13-Year 18-Year 15 Seeking Resilience: Issue 3 Can Individual Resilience Overcome Social Challenge? Rochester Longitudinal Study Infant Competencies Preschool Competencies Adolescent Competencies Adult Competencies 16 Infant Competence Obstetrical Problems (ROS) Newborn Pediatric Problems (ROS) Newborn Behavioral Scores (NBAS) 4-Month Temperament (Carey) 4-Month Development Scores (Bayley) 12-Month Development Scores (Bayley) High Resilience Low Resilience 17 Infant Competence Predicting to 4-Year Mental Health Infant Competence 4-Year M. H Low Moderate High Early Social Risk High Low 4-Year Mental Health Predicting to 18-Year Mental Health 18-Year Mental Health Low Moderate High 4-Year Social Risk 4-Year High MH Low MH 18 13-Year Mental Health Predicting to 18-Year Mental Health 18-Year Mental Health Low Moderate High 13-Year (Y) Mental Health High Low 13-Year Social Risk 3.5 Grade Point Average Trajectories For High and Low 4-Year IQ Groups 3 Grade Point Average Low Risk, High IQ High Risk, Low IQ School Year 19 3.5 Grade Point Average Trajectories For High and Low 4-Year IQ Groups 3 Grade Point Average Low Risk, High IQ High Risk, High IQ High Risk, Low IQ School Year 3.5 Grade Point Average Trajectories For High and Low 4-Year IQ Groups 3 Grade Point Average Low Risk, High IQ Low Risk, Low IQ High Risk, High IQ High Risk, Low IQ School Year 20 REGULATION MODEL Other Self Development REGULATION MODEL Constraints Competence Birth Adulthood 21 4-Year Social Risk Predicting to 30-Year Mental Health (GAF) 30-Year Mental Health Good Functioning 4-Year Social Risk 4-Year Social Risk Predicting to 30-Year Educational Attainment 30-Yr Education (Yrs.) BA HS 4-Year Social Risk 22 18-Year IQ Predicting to 30-Year Educational Attainment 30-Year Education Year IQ High Low Year Social Risk 18-Year Mental Health Predicting to 30-Year Mental Health (PIRS) 30-Yr. Mental Health Year Social Risk 18-Year MH High Low 23 18-Year Mental Health Predicting to 30-Year Physical Health 30-Yr Physical Health Year Social Risk 18-Year Mental Health High Low Unto the Next Generation 24 REGULATION MODEL Other Self New Self Developmental Generations RLS 30-Year Follow-Up Parent 4-Year Social Risk Predicting to Their Child s Behavior Problems 5 Child Behavior Year Social Risk 25 Parent 18-Year Mental Health Predicting to Their Child s Behavior Child Behavior Year Mental Health High Low Year Social Risk Seeking Resilience: Issue 4 Promoting Resilience 26 Philadelphia Adolescent Development Study Study of Adolescents to 14-year olds Urban Setting Multiple Competencies Multiple Challenges Indicators of Adolescent Resilience Psychological Adjustment Few Problem Behaviors Academic Competence Depression Anger Self-Esteem Substance Use Early Sexuality Delinquency Violence Grades 27 Environmental Risk Factors Proximal Parent-Child Interaction Parent Characteristics Family Structure & Economy Family Management Peers Community Distal Parent-Child Interaction Support for Autonomy Control of Behavior Family Emotional Climate Parent Characteristics Education Sense of Efficacy Problem Solving Ability Mental Health Family Structure & Economy Marital Status Household Crowding Income Level Welfare Status 28 Family Management Investment in Promoting Child Community Involvement Availability of Social Support Stressful Life Events Peers Contact with Prosocial Peers Contact with Antisocial Peers Community Neighborhood Resources Neighborhood Problems School Quality Psychological Adjustment Problem Behavior Academic Performance Standardized means Multiple Risk Score 29 Effects of Adolescent Resourcefulness High Low Effects of Adolescent Resourcefulness High Low Psychological Adjustment Problem Behavior Academic Performance LOW MED HIGH -1.0 LOW MED HIGH -1.0 LOW MED HIGH Multiple Risk Multiple Risk Multiple Risk Lines indicate means and 95% confidence intervals 30 Political Strategies for Social Intervention Conservatives-----Preserve the Family Liberals Eliminate Poverty Family Structure Single Parent Two Parents Psychological Adjustment Problem Behavior Academic Performance Standardized means Low (0-2) Moderate (3-5) High (6+) -0.6 Low (0-2) Moderate (3-5) High (6+) -0.6 Low (0-2) Moderate (3-5) High (6+) Multiple Risk Multiple Risk Multiple Risk 31 Income Level Below Poverty Level 1 to 2 Times Poverty Level 2 Times Poverty Level Psychological Adjustment Problem Behavior Academic Performance Standardized means Low (0-2) Moderate (3-5) High (6+) -1 Low (0-2) Moderate (3-5) High (6+) -1 Low (0-2) Moderate (3-5) High (6+) Multiple Risk Multiple Risk Multiple Risk Percent of Families in High and Low Risk Groups Risk Group Income Family Structure $10,000 $10-30,000 $30,000 Single Parent Two Parents Low (0-3) 13% 35% 60% 34% 54% High (8+) 44% 15% 6% 22% 7% 32 If single factors (money, parents) don t create resilience, What about multiple factors? Promotive Factors for Resilience (20 Assets instead of 20 Risks) Proximal Parent-Child Interaction Parent Characteristics Family Structure & Economy Family Management Peers Community Distal 33 Competence Psychological Adjustment Problem Behavior Academic Performance Promotive Factors Promotive Factors for Resilience (20 Assets instead of 20 Risks) Proximal Parent-Child Interaction Parent Characteristics Family Structure & Economy Family Management Peers Community Distal 34 Conclusions about Resilience In a population: no single factor is either necessary or sufficient to reduce resilience or to increase resilience Accumulation of risk factors reduces resilience Accumulation of promotive factors increases resilience X? Y Children Resilience 35 X Y Children Resilience Rochester Longitudinal Study Infancy Melvin Zax Ronald Seifer Early Childhood Ronald Seifer Ralph Barocas Adolescence Alfred Baldwin Clare Baldwin Tim Kasser Adulthood Tim Kasser Katherine Rosenblum 36 National Head Start/Public School Early Childhood Transition Demonstration Study Steve Peck Craig Ramey Sharon Ramey Philadelphia Adolescent Development Study Todd Bartko Jacque Eccles Frank Furstenberg Tom Cook Glen Elder 37
Related Search
Advertisements
Related Docs
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks