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Spanish Ll | Semantics | Morphology

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Learning foreign languages, simple phrases, words and grammar.
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    41. Useful Expressions   HayHabíaHay que + infinitiveTener que + inf.Ir a + inf.Acabar de + inf.Hace + time  There is/areThere was/wereIt is necessary to + inf.To have to + inf.To go to + inf.To have just + past participletime + ago 42. Progressive Tenses  The progressive tense indicates an action that is ongoing. It is formed by using estar (in any tense)with a present participle. Present participles are formed by dropping the ending of the verb, andadding the following endings to the stem:Present Participles-ar -ando  -er -iendo  -ir -iendo   Juan está hablando. Josh is talking. Estaban cantando. They were singing. Estuve escribiendo una carta. I was writing a letter. 43. Haber   Haber - to have  hehashahemoshabéishan 44. Present Perfect  The present perfect tense is a compound tense using haber with a past participle. (Haber is only usedas a helping verb; it is never used to show possession.) This tense can be translated as have or hasdone something. Please note that the preterite tense is used more often than this tense whenexpressing the past.  Past participles are formed by dropping the infinitive ending, and adding these endings: Past Participles  -ar-er-ir -ado-ido-ido  The following verbs have irregular past participles: abrir (to open) - abierto (opened); escribir (towrite) - escrito (written); morir (to die) - muerto (died); poner (to put) - puesto (put); ver (to see) - visto (seen); volver (to return) - vuelto (returned); decir (to say) - dicho (said); hacer (to do) - hecho (done). No han vendido la casa. They have not sold the house. Dónde ha puesto Ud. la llave? Where have you put the key? Hemos gastado mucho dinero. We have spent a lot of money. Qué ha dicho Ud.? What did you say? 45. Places  movies el cine  office la oficina  restaurant el restaurante bank el banco  mountain la montaña  pastry shop la pastelería  swimming pool la piscina  meat shop la carnicería  cafe el café ice cream shop le heladería  house la casa fruit shop la frutería  concert el concierto  fish shop la pescadería  library la biblioteca  pharmacy la farmacia  theater el teatro  candy store la dulcería  country el campo bookstore la librería  supermarket el supermercado paper store la papelería  bread shop la panadería  flower shop la floristería   46. Transportation  by bus en autobús  by bicycle en bicicleta  by car en coche  by motorcycle en motocicleta by subway en metro  by taxi en taxi  by plane en avión  by train en tren  by boat en barco  on foot a pie      47. To Want, to Be Able to, to Have to   querer-to want poder-to be able to, candeber-to have to, must quiero queremos puedo podemos debo debemosquieres queréis puedes podéis debes debéisquiere quieren puede pueden debe deben 48. House  houseliving roomdendining roomkitchenbedroomroomclosetbathroomfireplacestairwaywallfloorceilingroofhallwindowground floorsecond floor la casala sala de reciboel gabineteel comedorla cocinala recámarael cuartoel armarioel cuarto de bañola chimeneala escalerala paredel sueloel techoel tejadoel pasillola ventanael piso bajoel primer piso   49. Furniture  furnituretablecouchsofadeskchairarmchairbookcasecarpetrugcurtain, drapelamppicturewardrobebeddresserchest of drawersstoverefrigerator el mueblele mesael divánel sofáel escritoriola sillala butacael estante para librosla alfombrael tapetela cortinala lámparael cuadroel guardarropala camael tocadorla cómodala estufael refrigerador      50. Comparative and Superlative  Comparisons are expressed as follows: màs...quemenos...quetan...comotanto(a, os, as)...como more... thanless... thanas... asas much/many... as El gato es menos inteligente que el perro. The cat is less intelligent than the dog. Mi prima tiene más discos que nadie. My cousin has more records than anyone. No tengo tanto dinero como ustedes. I don't have as much money as you.To form comparatives, just add más or menos before the adjective or adverb. To form thesuperlative, place the definite article before the comparative. Note that de is used to express in  after asuperlative. más alta taller la más alta the tallest Rosa es la niña más alta de la clase. Rosa is the tallest girl in the class. 51. Irregular Forms  Some adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms. The most commonare: Adjective/AdverbComparative Superlative goodbadgreatsmallwellbadlymuchlittle buenomalograndepequeñobienmalmuchopoco  betterworsegreaterlessbetterworsemoreless mejorpeormayormenormejorpeormásmenos the bestthe worstthe greatestthe leastbestworstmostleast el mejorel peorel mayorel menorel mejorel peorel másel menos Note that the bueno and malo change according to gender and number while grande and pequeñochange according to gender. The adverbs (the last four) do not agree with the noun. 52. Clothing  clothingclothesdress la ropalos vestidosel vestido
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