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Uti | Urinary Tract Infection | Urinary Bladder

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Urinary Tract Infection
  1 BAB 2 Literature’s Review  2.1.   Anatomy anf Physiology of Urology System Urology system is the system that process screening of blood, so that the  blood free from substances which is not to be used by body and permeate substances which is used by body. Subtances which is not to be used again, dissolved by body and realease in urene form. The urology system consist of : 1.   Two kidneys 2.   Two ureters 3.   One bladder 4.   One urethera 2.1.1.   Kidney Is a gland. It lies in wall behind of kavum abdominalis and behind the  peritonium, at both side of third vertebra lumbalis. The form of kidney is like a nut. There are two kidneys, left and right. Right kidney is few lower than left kidney, caused by big dexter hepatitis lobus. The functioning unit of the kidney is the neprhon. Each kidney contains more than one million of these units. Each kidney divided into three major areas; the cortex, medulah, and  pelvis. The kidney has many function : a.   Be a part important in expendituring of body’s toxin  b.   Maintance balance of liquid c.   Keep balance acid and basa in the body  2 d.   Release the finish result of metabolism from protein ureum, ammonia and creatinin. Formation of Urine Urine is form in the nephron by three process : filtration, reabsorbstion, secretion. Filtration is the passage of the liquid through a filtering membrane as the result af the pressure differential. In the kidney, this take place in the glomerolus. Marking of normal urine : a.   Mean in one day 1-2 liter, but different each other as according to amount of dilution which enter.  b.   Its color of transparant orange without sediment c.   Its aroma sharply d.   Its reactoin a little acid to litmys with mean pH 4.5-8. 2.1.2.   Ureter Consists of two pipes, each duct is connected from kidney to vesika urinaria. Each ureter has definite elastic characteristic and is made of three  3 issue layer : (1) an inner mucosa (transitional ephithelial membrane) lining the lumen; (2) a muscular layer; and (3) a fibrous outer layer. The chief function of the ureter is to transport urine form the renal pelvis to the bladder. 2.1.3.   Bladder or Vesica Urinaria Works as relocation of urine. Its located behind the symphysis pubica in flank cavity. Vesica Urinaria can shrink like a rubber balloon. Micturition, also called urination and voiding, is the act of emptying the bladder. As the  bladder fills and the muscle fibers expand, stretch reseptors in the bladder wall are stimulated. The impulses initiating reflex are also sent to the cerebral cortex after a period of succesfully toilet training in early, childhood, the external sphincter usually under voluntary control. 2.1.4.   Urethra and Meatus The Urethra is tube that starts at the base of the bladder and extends to the surface of the body. Lenght at men about 13.7 - 16.2 cm Urethra consist of : 1)   Prostatica urethra 2)   Membranosa urethra 3)   Spongiosa urethra Lenght of woman’s urethra is about 3.7 - 6.2 cm (Taylor) or 3  –   5 cm (Lewis). Spichter urethra located in upside vagina, among vagina and clitoris and uretrha here only as channel of excretion. Wall of urethra consist of : a.   Artless muscle coat, representing artless muscle continuation of  bladder.  b.   Coat submucous c.   Coat of mucous The act of micrurition, the female urethra empties by gravity, whereas the male urethra empties by several contraction of the bulbocarvenosus muscle. The uretrha ends in the meatus, which under voluntary control in adult. When  4 voiding is not appropriate, the external sphincter contracts, holding back the flow of urine until the reflex stimulation caeses. 2.2. Definition of Urinary Tract Infections Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is an inflamantory response of the urothelium to bacterial invasion.  Bacteriuria is a commonly used term that means  bacteria in the urine. It has been assumed to be a valid indicator of either bacterial colonization or bacterial infection of the urinary tract. Althought this is ussualy true, studies in animals and humans have indicated that bacteria may colonize the urothelium without causing bacteriuria.  Pyuria , the presence of white blood cells (WBCs) in the urine, is generally, indicative of infection and a significant inflamantory response of the urothelium to the bactherium. Bactheriura in the absence of pyuria is genrally indicative of bactherial colonization without infection of the urinary tract. UTI maybe defined as the presence of pathogens in the urinary tract. They are among the most common of bacterial infections ad are frequent causes of morbidity and mortality. As the second most common reason for the prescription of empirical antobiotics, UTI’s are also major drivers of antibiotic usage and antibiotic resistance. It is therefore essential that we understand the pathogenesis of these conditions so that they can be managed appropriately, not only for the  benefit of the individual patient but also in order to control the spread of multidrug-resistance organism. Infections are often defined by their presumed site of srcin. Cystitis describes a clinical syndrome associated with dysuria, frequency, urgency,and occasionally suprabubic pain. These symptoms,althougt generally indicative of cystitis, may also be associated with infection of the urethra or vagina or noninfection condition such as interstitial cystitis, bladder carsinoma, or calculi. Conversely, patients may be asymptomatic and have infection of the bladder and  possibly the upper urinary tract. The pressumed source of bachteria that causes the infection can be used to further define infections.  Domiciolary infection , or outpatient-acquired infections ,
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