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01-Introduction.ppt | Java (Programming Language) | Computer Program

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The Art and Science of Java An Introduction to Computer Science
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  Introduction C H A P T E R 1 [The Analytical Engine offers] a new, a vast, and a powerful language . . . for the purposes of mankind.  —  Augusta Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace, 1843 1.1 A brief history of computing1.2 What is computer science? 1.3 A brief tour of computer hardware1.4 Algorithms 1.5 Stages in the programming process1.6 Java and the   object-oriented paradigm 1.7 Java and the World Wide Web  The Art and Science of   An Introduction to Computer Science  ERIC S. ROBERTS  Java  A Brief History of Computing ã  Although electronic computers are relativelynew, mechanical computers are much older.The abacus goes back almost 4000 years. ã  In the 17th century, several mechanical computing devices were developed in Europe. Reconstruction of 1623Wilhelm Schickard machine(Deutsches Museum, Munich) Blaise Pascal’s 1641“Pascaline” machine (Musée des Arts et Metiers, Paris) Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz’s calculating wheel (ca. 1671)(IBM) ã  The most important conceptual breakthroughs, however, camein the early part of the 19th century . . .  Babbage’s Machines Charles Babbage (1791-1871) Charles Babbage is one of the mostfascinating figures in the history of computing. Captivated by the idea that hecould build a machine to producemathematical tables, Babbage designedtwo machines, the DifferenceEngine  andthe AnalyticalEngine , that anticipatedmany of the features found in moderncomputers.Although Babbage was unable to finisheither machine during his lifetime, theScience Museum in London was able tocomplete a full-scale Difference Enginefor the 200th anniversary of his birth.  Ada Byron, The First Programmer Augusta Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace (1815  –  1852) Augusta Ada Byron, the daughter of English poetLord Byron, was encouraged to pursue her interestsin science and mathematics at a time when fewwomen were allowed to study those subjects. At theage of 17, Ada met Charles Babbage and becamefascinated by his machines. Ada was convinced of the potential of   Babbage’s  Analytical Engine andwrote extensive notes on its design, along withseveral complex mathematical programs that haveled many people to characterize her as the first programmer. In 1980, the U.S. Department of Defense named the programming language Ada inher honor.
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