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Al-Aqsa Mosque and The Third Palestinian Intifada المسجد الأقصى والانتفاضة الفلسطينية الثالثة

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This paper highlights the threats that Al-Aqsa Mosque is exposed from the Zionist entity. It seeks to recognize the gradual Judaizing attempts that are being implemented on the factual level. In more comprehensive frameworks, the paper also addresses
   ISSN 2289-8506 © 2017 Global Academy of Training & Research (GATR) Enterprise. All rights reserved.   Global Journal of Business and Social Science Review Journal homepage: www.gatrenterprise.com/GATRJournals/index.html  Global J. Bus. Soc. Sci. Review 5 (1) 114 –136 (2017) Al-Aqsa Mosque and The Third Palestinian Intifada * 1 Bashir AbulQaraya College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Zayed University, Abu Dhabi, UAE   ABSTRACT Objective –   This paper highlights the threats that Al-Aqsa Mosque is exposed from the Zionist entity. It seeks to recognize the gradual Judaizing attempts that are being implemented on the factual level. In more comprehensive frameworks, the  paper also addresses the Judaizing of Jerusalem science occupying the sacred city in 1967. There is no doubt that these Zionist practices have led to igniting a third Intifada. This paper examines the evolution of active power’s map and their interactions, which includes: The Israeli occupation authority, Jewish religious groups, the Palestinian Authority, the Palestinian militant factions, Fatah and Hamas, The Palestinian people, the Arab regimes, and the Arab peoples. The  paper is interested in analysing the Palestinian political differences and the evolution of political situations in the Arab region. The paper also addresses the impact of the Arab situations on the Israeli political behaviour and the extent to which the region is passing through an appropriate opportunity toward more Zionist violations and accelerating the Judaizing of the Holy City, which include the Islamic sanctities and the Palestinian suburbs of Jerusalem, the native  people of the city. The paper also covers the developments and the new phenomena in particular, and at the forefront the rise of Palestinian Intifada’s phenomenon which called: the third Intifada. Methodology/Technique –   The study reviews previous literature. Findings –   The paper concludes at the end of the analysis to provide a vision for the future of contemplative Al-Aqsa mosque, runs from two visions; one is pessimistic and the other is optimistic. Every approach has its private determinants, on the safe level in particular, which related to the Palestinian, Arab and Islamic reality. Novelty –   Accordingly, this paper will analyse four topics: Judaizing of Jerusalem, threats of Judaizing Al-Aqsa Mosque, the rise of the Intifada’s phenomenon, and the future of Al-Aqsa Mosque. Type of Paper: Review  Keywords :   Mosque; Aqsa Mosque; Jerusalem; Arab Israeli Conflict; Judaize; Intifada; Theoretical Models; Islamic Political Thought; Political Theory; Political Science. JEL Classification: F51, F53.    _______________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Introduction This study explores the Zionist threats to the Aqsa Mosque. It is important to determine what the Aqsa Mosque means, and what the difference between it and the Haram Sharif, The Dome of the Rock, the Marwani Mosque, and The Qibli Mosque. In general, there are two meanings of the Aqsa Mosque, the specific meaning and the general meaning. In its general meaning, the Aqsa mosque means the Haram Sharif of Jerusalem with all components, walls and what is inside, including the Qibli mosque, the Dome of the Rock mosque, the *   Paper Info: Received: November 18, 2016 Accepted: June 14, 2017   *  Corresponding author: E-mail:   Bashir.AbulQaraya@zu.ac.ae Affiliation: Assistant professor college of humanities and science, Zayed University, UAE GATR JOURNALS  Bashir AbulQaraya  115 Global J. Bus. Soc. Sci. Review 5 (1) 114 – 136 (2017) women's mosque, the Marwani mosque, and other monuments including the schools, graveyards, Ablutions, yards, gardens, terraces, gates and walls. The Aqsa mosque in the specific meaning, is the roofed building in which the prophet Mohammad, Peace be Upon Him, lead the prophets in prayers during the Isra and Mi'raj night. It is one of the buildings of the Haram Sharif, known as the Qibli mosque. Thus, when the media points to the Dome of the Rock mosque as the Aqsa mosque, that is true considering it a part of the Aqsa mosque in the broadest meaning, but this should not mean skipping the Aqsa Mosque in its specific meaning or what is called the Qibli mosque. For more details, see: (Sharab, 1996, pp. 403-432). These threats are evident in the form of implementing gradual Judaizing attempts. The study, in a broader framework, covers the Judaizing of Jerusalem, which is, sometimes, imposed in the accelerated pace whenever the circumstances allow, in aims to detach the city from its Arabic-Islamic attributes. To identify to Judaizing Jerusalem historically and violating the International legitimacy decisions by the Occupation Authority, see: (Al-Farra, 1984, pp. 6-9, 11-14). This, in turn, makes it easier to Judaize the Aqsa mosque, the last Arabic-Islamic bastion, from their point of view. To identify status of Jerusalem in Islam, see: (Al-Husseini, 1969, pp. 57-71). The study also explores the development of the active powers and their interactions in this regard, including the Israeli occupation authority, the Jewish religious groups, the Palestinian Authority, armed Palestinian factions, Fatah and Hamas, insurgents, the Palestinian people, Arabic systems, and Arab nations. It focuses on the Palestinian political conflicts and the development of the political conditions in the Arab region, and their reflections on the political Israeli behavior in terms of considering the regional situation as a golden chance for more Zionist encroachment, and accelerating the pace of Judaizing the sacred city including the Islamic sanctities and the Palestinian Jerusalemite neighborhoods, the absrcinals. The study also covers updates and latest phenomena in this regard. On top of these the Palestinian Intifada, characterized by rising and escalation, and latency and fading, according to the status quo of the nation and the Intifada environment, in what thereafter became known by the Third Intifada (Beaumont, 2015) in the media and among researchers. The study then concludes by introducing an insightful vision of the future of the Aqsa mosque from two viewpoints; a pessimistic and another optimistic one. Each viewpoint possesses its limitations, especially on the level related to the Palestinian, Arabic and Islamic status quo. The current study, then, explores four major points: Judaizing Jerusalem, threats of Judaizing the Aqsa, rising of the Palestinian Intifada, and the future of the Aqsa mosque. 2. Methods In addition to the research problem and hypothesis the paper will use a theoretical model about the political role of the mosque which was suggested from the author in 1994. One of the most important purpose of this study is to develop this model. 2.1 Research Problem The research problem is focused on the negative Israeli practices and the recognition of its impacts on the rise of the Palestinian Intifada. The research problem is also focussed on developing the theoretical model; system of relation between mosque and ruling authority   , which has appeared in 1994, to be appropriate for applying on a relationship between a colonial authority and a very important national religious institution like Aqsa mosque. 2.2 Hypothesis The paper assumes the following hypotheses:    The more the Israeli violations against Aqsa mosque, the more likely the rise of Palestinian Intifada again.    The more the Israeli violations against Aqsa mosque, the more likely the escalation of political role  Bashir AbulQaraya  116 Global J. Bus. Soc. Sci. Review 5 (1) 114 – 136 (2017) for Aqsa mosque.    Occupation authority is determined to gradually demolish the Aqsa Mosque and build the Third Temple in its place.    The more the weakness of Palestinians, Arabs and Muslims in the world, the greater negative practices of the occupation authority against Aqsa mosque. 2.3 Methodology The paper is interested in applying the theoretical model: System of the relationship between the mosque and ruling authority   , as an analytical tool, which will be applied on the relationship between Aqsa mosque and Israeli occupation authority (AbulQaraya, 1994, pp. 311-325; AbulQaraya, 2015, pp. 252-256). The following three figures show the detail: Figure 1. The Theoretical Model   System of Relationship Between Mosque and Ruling Authority  Bashir AbulQaraya  117 Global J. Bus. Soc. Sci. Review 5 (1) 114 – 136 (2017) Figure 2. Applying the Theoretical Model  Case Study:  Aqsa Mosque Figure 3. Developing the Theoretical Model The Political Role of Aqsa Mosque  Bashir AbulQaraya  118 Global J. Bus. Soc. Sci. Review 5 (1) 114 – 136 (2017) 3. Results The key findings of this paper are:    There is a positive relationship between Aqsa mosque and the Palestinian Intifada.    There is a positive relationship between Israeli Judaizing actions and escalating of the Palestinian Intifada.    There is a positive relationship between the weakness of Palestinians, Arabs, and Muslims, and the Israeli actions of Judaizing the mosque. On the other hand, the paper on the realistic level recommends the following:    Future of Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem, and residents of Jerusalem, depend on the unity of Arabs and Palestinians through overcoming their differences and problems and prevent, in their affairs, the intervention of regional powers and the majority.    Aqsa Mosque is in imminent danger, and that is a cause for Muslims, Arabs and Palestinians to take these Israeli actions and steps seriously.    Even their passiveness, weakness, dispersions, and complacency continued one day they will wake up with something very gravely leading to a dire consequences.    Zionists will be built and ready pretexts they always have.    The forces of global domination will not let them down if they make the maximum division and build a synagogue, or even demolish Aqsa Mosque and the establishment of the third Temple.    There is no way but to unite and sit-rope of Allah and not to disperse. The paper also, but on the theoretical level, recommends the following:    The political researchers, those who are specialist in Islamic political thought or Islamic political theory in particular, are invited to apply this theoretical model on another mosque case study.    Developing this theoretical model should take into consideration the distinguish between the national authority and the colonial authority. The type of relationship with the mosque is completely difference in both authorities. 4. Discussion To validate the hypothesis, confirm the importance of the results, and achieve an in-depth analysis to the case study, the paper will discuss four main subjects: Judaizing of Jerusalem, Threats of Al-Aqsa Judaizing, The rise of the phenomenon of the Intifada, and The future of the Aqsa mosque. For the second subject, threats of Al-Aqsa Judaizing, the paper will discuss two points: first, the field actions, focusing on: control, intrusions, division, excavations, prohibiting renovation and rebuilding, restrictions and complications, and preparations for building the temple. Secondly, the next steps, focusing on: taking full control over the Aqsa, spatial division, building a Jewish synagogue in one of the Aqsa squares, closing the Aqsa Mosque, destroying and demolishing the Aqsa, and building the Third Temple on the ruins of Aqsa. For the third subject, the rise of the phenomenon of Intifada, the paper will discuss: the prefaces and reasons, the Intifada act and people of Intifada, tools and means, Zionist reactions, the Intifada’s environment, and the attributes of the Intifada. 4.1 Judaizing of Jerusalem Since the occupation of Jerusalem in 1967 and joining in 1980, the Zionist entity gradually started to follow the policy of Judaizing land, building stones and human. This policy is still ongoing to this day, despite listing Jerusalem in the World Heritage in Danger    list because of the Israeli acts and assigning a personal
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