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Chemistry | Ion | Acid

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An outstanding thesis on chemistry! Written by H.I Dawkins
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  Chemistry, a branch of physical science, is the study of the composition, structure, properties and change of matter.[1][2] Chemistry is chiefly concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms - for example, the properties of the chemical bonds formed between atoms to create chemical compounds. As well as this, interactions including atoms and other phenomena - electrons and arious forms of energy!are considered, such as photochemical reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, changes in phases of matter, and separation of mixtures. inally, properties of matter such as alloys or polymers are considered.Chemistry is sometimes called #the central science# because it bridges other natural sciences li$e physics, geology and biology with each other.[%][&] Chemistry is a branch of physical science but distinct from physics.['](he etymology of the word chemistry has been much disputed.[)] (he srcin of chemistry can be traced to certain practices, $nown as alchemy, which had been practiced for seeral millennia in arious parts of the world, particularly the *iddle +ast.[]Contents [hide] 1 +tymology1.1 efinition2 istory2.1 Chemistry as science2.2 Chemical structure% /rinciples of modern chemistry%.1 *atter%.1.1 Atom%.1.2 +lement%.1.% Compound%.1.& *olecule%.1.' 0ubstance and mixture%.1.) *ole and amount of substance%.2 /hase%.% onding  %.& +nergy%.' eaction%.) 3ons and salts%. Acidity and basicity%.4 edox%.5 +6uilibrium%.17 Chemical laws& /ractice&.1 0ubdisciplines&.2 Chemical industry&.% /rofessional societies' 0ee also) eferences ibliography4 urther reading+tymology8uola apps edu science.pngChemistryistory9utline3ndex:lossaryCategory/ortal t e  *ain article; Chemistry <word=(he word chemistry comes from the word alchemy, an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, metallurgy, philosophy, astrology, astronomy, mysticism and medicine> it is commonly thought of as the 6uest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold.[4] Alchemy, which was practiced around %%7, is the study of the composition of waters, moement, growth, embodying, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies <?osimos=.[5] An alchemist was called a @chemist@ in popular speech, and later the suffix #-ry# was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as #chemistry#.(he word alchemy in turn is deried from the Arabic word al-$mB <  یمیکلا ). In srcin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία.[10][11] his m! h!#e $g %ti!n srcins. &!n be'ie#e th!t !'(km* is deri#ed from the Greek χημία, whi+h is in trn deri#ed from the word -hemi or imi, whi+h is the !n+ient n!me of $g %t in $g %ti!n.[10] /'tern!te' , !'(km* m! be deri#ed from χημεία, me!ning +!st together.[1]2efinitionIn retros%e+t, the definition of +hemistr h!s +h!nged o#er time, !s new dis+o#eries !nd theories !dd to the fn+tion!'it of the s+ien+e. he term +h mistr , in the #iew of noted s+ientist 3obert 4o 'e in 1551, me!nt the sb6e+t of the m!teri!' %rin+i%'es of mi7ed bodies.[18] In 1558, +h mistr  me!nt ! s+ientifi+ !rt, b whi+h one 'e!rns to disso'#e bodies, !nd dr!w from them the different sbst!n+es on their +om%osition, !nd how to nite them !g!in, !nd e7!'t them to ! higher %erfe+tion ( this definition w!s sed b +hemist -hristo%her G'!ser.[19]he 1:80 definition of the word +hemistr , !s sed b Georg $rnst ;t!h', me!nt the !rt of reso'#ing mi7ed, +om%ond, or !ggreg!te bodies into their %rin+i%'es< !nd of +om%osing s+h bodies from those %rin+i%'es.[1=] In 1>8:, ?e!n(4!%tiste 2m!s +onsidered the word +hemistr  to refer to the s+ien+e +on+erned with the '!ws !nd effe+ts of mo'e+'!r for+es.[15] his definition frther e#o'#ed nti', in 1@9:, it +!me to me!n the s+ien+e of sbst!n+esA their str+tre, their %ro%erties, !nd the re!+tions th!t +h!nge them into other sbst!n+es ( ! +h!r!+teriB!tion !++e%ted b Cins D!'ing.[1:] &ore re+ent' , in 1@@>, the definition of +hemistr  w!s bro!dened to me!n the std of m!tter !nd the +h!nges it ndergoes, !s %hr!sed b Drofessor 3! mond -h!ng.[1>]Eistor &!in !rti+'eA Eistor of +hemistr ;ee !'soA /'+hem !nd ime'ine of +hemistr   2emo+ritsF !tomist %hi'oso%h w!s '!ter !do%ted b $%i+rs 891H:0 4-$).$!r' +i#i'iB!tions, s+h !s the $g %ti!ns[1@] !nd 4!b 'oni!ns !m!ssed %r!+ti+!' know'edge +on+erning the !rts of met!''rg , %otter !nd d es, bt didnFt de#e'o% ! s stem!ti+ theor . / b!si+ +hemi+!' h %othesis first emerged in -'!ssi+!' Gree+e with the theor of for e'ements !s %ro%onded definiti#e' b /ristot'e st!ting th!t th!t fire, !ir, e!rth !nd w!ter were the fnd!ment!' e'ements from whi+h e#er thing is formed !s ! +ombin!tion. Greek !tomism d!tes b!+k to 990 4-, !rising in works b %hi'oso%hers s+h !s 2emo+rits !nd $%i+rs. In =0 4-, the 3om!n %hi'oso%her C+retis e7%!nded %on the theor in his book 2e rerm n!tr! n he J!tre of hings).[0][1] Kn'ike modern +on+e%ts of s+ien+e, Greek !tomism w!s %re' %hi'oso%hi+!' in n!tre, with 'itt'e +on+ern for em%iri+!' obser#!tions !nd no +on+ern for +hemi+!' e7%eriments.[]In the Ee''enisti+ wor'd the !rt of !'+hem first %ro'ifer!ted, ming'ing m!gi+ !nd o++'tism into the std of n!tr!' sbst!n+es with the 'tim!te go!' of tr!nsmting e'ements into go'd !nd dis+o#ering the e'i7ir of etern!' 'ife.[8] /'+hem w!s dis+o#ered !nd %r!+tised wide' throghot the /r!b wor'd !fter the &s'im +onLests,[9] !nd from there, diffsed into medie#!' !nd 3en!iss!n+e $ro%e throgh C!tin tr!ns'!tions.[=]-hemistr !s s+ien+eKnder the inf'en+e of the new em%iri+!' methods %ro%onded b ;ir Mr!n+is 4!+on !nd others, ! gro% of +hemists !t 7ford, 3obert 4o 'e, 3obert Eooke !nd ?ohn &! ow beg!n to resh!%e the o'd !'+hemi+!' tr!ditions into ! s+ientifi+ dis+i%'ine. 4o 'e in %!rti+'!r is reg!rded !s the fonding f!ther of +hemistr de to his most im%ort!nt work, the +'!ssi+ +hemistr te7t he ;+e%ti+!' -h mist where the differenti!tion is m!de between the +'!ims of !'+hem !nd the em%iri+!' s+ientifi+ dis+o#eries of the new +hemistr .[5] Ee form'!ted 4o 'eFs '!w, re6e+ted the +'!ssi+!' for e'ements !nd %ro%osed ! me+h!nisti+ !'tern!ti#e of !toms !nd +hemi+!' re!+tions th!t +o'd be sb6e+t to rigoros e7%eriment.[:] /ntoine(C!rent de C!#oisier is +onsidered the M!ther of &odern -hemistr .[>]he theor of %h'ogiston ! sbst!n+e !t the root of !'' +ombstion) w!s %ro%onded b the Germ!n Georg $rnst ;t!h' in the e!r' 1>th +entr !nd w!s on' o#ertrned b the end of the +entr b the Mren+h +hemist /ntoine C!#oisier, the +hemi+!' !n!'oge of Jewton in %h si+s< who did more th!n !n other to est!b'ish the new s+ien+e on %ro%er theoreti+!' footing, b e'+id!ting the %rin+i%'e of +onser#!tion of m!ss !nd de#e'o%ing ! new s stem of +hemi+!' nomen+'!tre sed to this d! .[@]
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