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Ghazali’s Ethics: A Study of Ethics in Earnings and Economic Activities

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In Islam the world Ethos must be closed to “akhlaq” sgl., from “khuluq” plr., which means the customs and habits or inner phenomenon of human soul that embodies the actions of humankind without planning because they were created thoroughly within a
  Ghazali’s Ethics: A Study of Ethics in Earnings andEconomic Activities Presented by:  Abu Muhammad Ahmad Daud Ishak El-Merbawiy   Academy of Islamic Contemporary Studies (ACIS) MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, BUKIT BESI BRANCH CAMPUS 23200 Besol, Bukit Besi Dungun erengganu! "mail to # easudi$amdun%gmail!com Introduction Su&'ect $ilosop$y of "t$ics $as &een categoried under "t$ics after *etap$ysicsand "pistemology! $us +e could eamine t$at "t$ics is-. Ethic , or /moral p$ilosop$y/, is concerned +it$ uestions of $o+ persons oug$t to act or if suc$ uestions are ans+era&le! $e main &ranc$es of et$ics are meta1et$ics, normatie et$ics, and applied et$ics! *eta1et$ics concerns t$e nature of et$ical t$oug$t, comparison of arious et$ical systems, +$et$er t$ere are a&soluteet$ical trut$s, and $o+ suc$ trut$s could &e kno+n! "t$ics is alsoassociated +it$ t$e idea of morality ! lato/s early dialogues include a searc$ for definitions of irtue! 1 see 4ikipedia under $ilosop$y of Am&iguity ($ttp#55en!+ikipedia!org5+iki5  Philosophy.. !" $e +ord "t$ics descended from 6reek +orld ‘ethos’  +$ic$ means a preparatory of $uman soul to &e$ae to &e an ecellent manner! 7rom etymology point of  ie+ "t$ics $as emp$asied on firstly $uman &e$aior +$ic$ focused on $o+ to &e a +ise man! Secondly, social regulation +$ic$ means a standard of regulationt$at superising $uman &e$aior +ere gien t$e 'udgment on 8a+ful and9nla+ful or dos and don:ts! (Sidek Ba&a,  Pemikiran HAMKA , DB, 200;#<;)  Ethos  from 6reek:s point of ie+ could &e summaried to &e t$e collection of  &e$aioral sciences or regulations t$at goerned $uman actiities! In Islam t$e +orld  Ethos  must &e closed to . akhlaq  sgl!, from “khuluq  plr!, +$ic$ means t$ecustoms and $a&its or inner p$enomenon of $uman soul t$at em&odies t$eactions of $umankind +it$out planning &ecause t$ey +ere created t$oroug$ly  +it$in a long period process of educations, nurturing and trainings 7or eampleal16$aali $ad outlined seeral items +$ic$ +ere considered as "t$ics likeatient, 7earsome, A&stinent, =eflection or Contemplation, Support t$etrut$fulness and Aoid +rongdoings ignorance:s, repentance etc!, ! (Sidek,200;#<;)!rof *u$ammad >aui& al1?Attas $ad emp$asied t$at 6$aali:s "t$ics +asconsidered as a conclusion of t$e &e$aior among t$e pious men, t$e principles 1  and alues of "t$ics in Islam are recognied as t$e reality and a&soluteness, +$ic$ are similar to t$e +estern "t$ics +$ic$ are considered as relatieness inprinciples and alues +$ic$ conducted according to t$e c$anges of circumstancesand period of times! @e said#.As for Islam t$e aim of "ducation is not$ing unless to construct and produce assuc$ perfect men! *ean+$ile in t$e +est "ducation is used as instruments formerely +orldly ac$ieements +it$in t$e realm of certain societies and >ationStates! (S*> al1Attas,  Islam: Faham Agama dan Asas Akhlak , #0) #!P$cho%o&$ o' Hu()n N)tur* 6$aali prescri&ed t$at all psyc$ological p$enomena srcinated from innate of $uman ?self : ! But &efore appre$end t$ose aspects, let:s ask ourseles-14$at is t$e nature of t$e ?self :14$at is t$e ultimate purpose14$ere in lie t$e misery and $appiness$e ans+ers are-$e ?self: is also Ar&!, Qalb 6$aali called it +th* **nc* o' ()n  1 .It is th*-iritu)% *ntit$ .hich )/id*  in $is p$ysical &ody and contro% hi or&)nic)nd -$chic)% 'unction!  It is called Qalb  ($eart), &ecause it is conn*ct*d .ith th* -h$ic)% h*)rt,  t$oug$ t$e connection is merely transcendental! Th*-iriu)% h*)rt i th* u/t)nc*  and t$e p$ysical only is an accident of it!$e concept of $uman self is epressed in Ara&ic &y four (E) terms +$ic$ are ) Qalb  F means $eart, 2)  uuh  F means soul, 3)  !a"s  F desire1nature, and E) ‘Aqlu F intellect or reason! 6$aali $ad eplained a&out t$ese entities of $uman self  +$ic$ +ere consisting of:-SG98 A>D IS A=IB9"SIt is &y means of soul t$at man is t$e 8ord of creation as it is &y means of soul t$at man acuires t$e kno+ledge of 6od and @is attri&utes and &y no ot$er organs of t$e &ody! It is &y means of soul t$at man can goto t$e nearness of 6od and make efforts to realie @im!   So soul is t$eking of t$e &ody and its different organs are its serants to carry outits orders and commands!  It is accepted &y 6od +$en it remains free fromt$ings ot$er t$an 6od! 4$en it is attac$ed to t$ings ot$er t$an 6od, it driftsa+ay from 6od! It is t$e soul +$ic$ +ill &e asked and re&uked! It &ecomesfortunate if it is purified and cleaned, and it &ecomes fortunate if it is keptimpure! It is t$e kno+ledge of soul +$ic$ is t$e root of t$e kno+ledge of 6od! 4$en man does not kno+ $imself $e does not kno+ 6od! *a'ority of men areignorant of soul and its attri&utes as screen is cast &et+een soul and &aser self! 2  6od says# H6od moes &et+een a man and $is soul and controls it and itsattri&utes! It is &et+een t$e t+o fingers of t$e *erciful! It sometimes reac$es t$elast limit of t$e deil and sometimes rises so $ig$ as to t$e t$rone of t$e Almig$ty! @e +$o does not enuire a&out $is soul is included among t$osepersons of +$om 6od says in t$e follo+ing erse# $ey forgot 6od and so @emade t$eir souls forgetful #<! $ey are t$e transgressors! It is t$ereforeessential to kno+ soul and its attri&utes +$ic$ is t$e root of religion! 4$at $as &een said in t$e earlier pages of t$is &ook relates to t$e out+ard organsand &odily lim&s! >o+ +e s$all narrate t$e attri&utes and eils of soul +$ic$ aret$e su&'ect matter of secret kno+ledge! 4G=DS1  !AF#$ %H$ QA&'$ AQ&  "8AI>"D() QALB  $as got t+o meanings! It means first a piece of fles$ in t$e left &reastcalled $eart +$ic$ is $ollo+ in t$e interior,; Soul and its Attri&utes  (Jol1III in  Ih(aa’ ‘%luum ad)*een ) t$at isdiscussed on-$e entity is filled up +it$ &lack &lood and +$ic$ is again a source of =u$ orlife ! @eart is t$e center or mine for circulation of &lood! $e detailed descriptionof $eart is to &e found in Anatomy! It eists in &reasts and lo+er animals andappertains to t$e material +orld! 4e s$all not refer to it in our &ook! $e secondmeaning of Qalb  is soul +it$ +$ic$ +e are concerned $ere! It is an immaterialt$ing or formless  &ati"a  or  &asic su&tle element +$ic$ $as got connection +it$ t$e material $eart!  It is 'ust like unseen electricity! It is t$e principalt$ing in a man! It catc$es kno+ledge of 6od and spiritual +orld! It is punis$edand re+arded! $e connection of soul +it$ $eart is t$e connection of attri&utes +it$ t$e &odily lim&s, or a mac$ine +it$ t$e mac$ine man, or a $ouse +it$ itsinmates! $is connection is of t+o kinds! Gne kind of connection is +it$ ‘%luumel)Mokasha"ah  (uneiled infusion) or spiritual kno+ledge! But in t$is look, ouro&'ect is to narrate ‘%luum el)Muamalah  (ransactions) or kno+ledge of +orldly usages! Its second connection reuires t$e kno+ledge of t$e secrets of soul! $erop$et did not t$ro+ lig$t on t$is o&'ect and so +e s$ould refrain from it! 4es$all translate t$e +ord Qalb  in t$is &ook as soul or an immaterial t$ing  &ati"a  +it$ its attri&utes!(2)  RUH  # It $as got also t+o meanings! It means first a material t$ing +it$in t$e$eart +$ic$ i&rates t$e +$ole &ody like t$e current of electricity and +$ic$ runs t$roug$ t$e eins of t$e &ody!  It is called /life/ ! It $as got t$epo+er of touc$, $earing, sig$t, smell and t$e po+er of t$e ot$er lim&s of t$e &ody! It is 'ust like radiation of lig$t of a lig$ted lamp pitc$ed in a corner of t$e$ouse! It is a su&tle gas or steam +$ic$ creates t$e $eat of t$e $eart! Gur o&'ect isnot t$at! $e second meaning of  uh   is an immaterial su&tle t$ing +$ic$ is 3  called soul and not life!  6od says# $ey ask you a&out  uh ! Say# It is acommand from my 8ord! #;K!(3)  NAFS  # It $as got also t+o meanings for our purpose! $e first meanings is passion or &aser and lo+er self  ! assion is a compre$ensie +ord consistingof greed, anger and ot$er eil attri&utes! $e rop$et said# Lour greatest enemy is your passion lying &y your t+o sides! $e second meaning of  !a"s  is soul asdescri&ed a&oe! 4$en >afs assumes calmness and $as remoedpassion, it is t$en termed  !a"s el)Mutma’innah  or satisfied soul as6od says# .0 satisfied soul, return to your 8ord satisfied and satisfying $im1;#2! In t$e first meaning,  !a"s is +it$ t$e, party of deil! 4$en t$e calm nature of >afs does not &ecome perfect, it is!! Jol1III, $e Book of Destructie eils  urges t$at-It is called  Nafs Lawwamah  or self1accusing soul, as suc$ a soul re&ukes onefor neglecting diine duties! If soul gies up protests and surrenders itself to t$edeil, it is called  !a"s Ammarah or passion addicted to eils! $e Muran refers tot$is in erse 2#K3(E)  AQL # It $as got many meanings t+o of +$ic$ +e s$all narrate $ere! $e first meaning of  Aql   is  intellect +it$ +$ic$ true nature of t$ings of t$is material +orld is kno+n and its seat is in soul ! $e second meaning of  Aql  is po+er to understand t$e secrets of different learning! It is a su&tle essence called kno+ledge +$ic$ is an attri&ute!  Attri&ute and t$e t$ing  +$ic$ contains it are t+o different t$ings! Intellect is t$e name of &ot$! $is is supported &y t$e follo+ing @adis! $e first t$ing +$ic$ 6od created is intellect! $e attri&ute of intellect is an immaterial t$ing &ut t$e attri&ute cannot stand  +it$out a material t$ing! So t$e place of intellect s$ould &e created first or along  +it$ it! Nno+ledge is t$e content of intellect and so it +as created first! ($ttp#55 www.ghazali.org 5i$ya5englis$5i$ya1ol3!$tm) 0!Th* A1io( o' I%)(ic Ethic)% Phi%oo-h$ 0!# Unicit$ o' A%%)h 2 Tawheed lillah 0!0 E3ui%i/riu( or 4utic* 2 ‘Adalah 0!5 Fr** 6i%% or 'r**do( 7  Hrriyyah 0!8 Trut** or r*-oni/i%it$ 7  Ama!ah 0!9 B*n*:o%*nc* 7  "hsaa! 4  5!Gh);)%i< Ethic C@A"= IJ# @A8A8 A>D @A=A* (la+ful and unla+ful t$ings)$e rop$et said# .It is compulsory on eery *uslim to seek la+ful earnings! @etermed t$is compulsory su&'ect as a t$ing of +isdom for a +ise man out of ot$ercompulsory t$ings! 8a+ful t$ings are clear and unla+ful t$ings are also clear!Bet+een t$ese t+o, t$ere are dou&tful t$ings +$ic$ are not clear and difficult tokno+! All t$ings are limited +it$in t$ese t$ree t$ings! $is +ill &e discussed inseen sections!S"CIG> I*"=IS G7 8A4798 "A=>I>6S A>D CG>D"*>AIG> G7 9>8A4798 =URAN>  6od says# "at of t$e good t$ings and do good deeds1 2#<;! 6odordered for eating good t$ings &efore doing good deeds! $e o&'ect of t$is orderis eating of la+ful t$ings! 6od says# Don/t eat properties of one anot$er un'ustly12#;;! 6od says# 0 t$e &elieers, fear 6od and gie up +$at remains of interest if  you are &eliees12!2;! 6od says# If you do not do it, t$en &e prepared to fig$t +it$ 6od and @is rop$et12#2;! $en @e says# If you repent, t$en for you is t$ecapital! $en @e said# $ose +$o turn a+ay from t$at are t$e inmates of @ell!$ey +ill a&ide t$erein! At first, eating of interest, t$en call for fig$t +it$ 6od and@is Apostle and last of all residing in @ell $ae &een mentioned! $ere areinnumera&le erses regarding la+ful and unla+ful t$ings! H)di>  $e rop$et said# It is compulsory on eery *uslim to seek la+fulearnings! $e rop$et said# @e +$o makes efforts to maintain $is family out of la+ful earnings is like a fig$ter in t$e +ay of 6od and $e +$o seeks la+fulearnings after restraining $imself +ill get t$e rank of a martyr! $e rop$et said #If a man eats la+ful food for forty days, 6od illumines $is $eart and lets flo+  +isdom from $is $eart t$roug$ $is tongue! In anot$er narration# 6od grants $imrenunciation in t$e +orld! Gnce @arat Sa/ad said to t$e rop$et# .ray to 6odt$at @e may accept my inocation! $e rop$et said# "at la+ful food and fort$at your inocation +ill &e accepted! $e rop$et mentioned t$e +orldly addicted men and said# $ere are many men +$o $ae got dis$eeled $airs!<2 $e Book of 4ordily 9sages Jol1II saying t$at-Dust laden dresses, are tired in 'ourney, +$ose food is unla+ful, +$ose dress inunla+ful, and +$o $ae &een maintained &y unla+ful food! If t$ey raise t$eir$ands and say# /0 8ord/ G 8ord/ $o+ can t$eir inocation &e accepted $erop$et said# An angel residing in  'oitul Muqaddas  proclaims eery nig$t#  #ara"  5
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