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T8 B22 Filson Materials Fdr- 8-29-02 MGen Shepperd Interview- Typed Notes 314 | Air National Guard | Anti Aircraft Warfare

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MGen. Shepperd - 8/29/02 You were director of the ANG during the 1AF transition to ANG command and control. Can you describe the importance of the air sovereignty mission? You have to put it in context of sev things: Cold War was drawing to a close after the Gulf War, Berlin Wall had come down, Soviets were gone as an air threat, No longer the things we'd experienced early on of Bear aircraft coming down from su going to cuba At the same x, the af was drawing down dramatically in force structur
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  MGen. Shepperd - 8/29/02 You were director of the ANG during the 1AF transition to ANG command and control.Canyou describe the importance of the air sovereignty mission? You have to put it in context of sev things:ColdWar was drawing to a close after the Gulf War, Berlin Wall had come down, Soviets were gone as an air threat,No longer the things we'd experienced early on of Bear aircraft coming down from su going tocuba At the same x, the af was drawing down dramatically in force structure Not only aboutairdefense, aboutnolonger needngthecoldwarforce structure and things we had extablished for the cold war About money and the reorg of the af under gen mcpeks direction Another factor often forgotten - BRAC - the deisre of gen mcpeak was to get the af right, in other words, to put the boxes in the right place and strucutre the af for the futre He felt ang had been the guardian of air defense force for years and therefore command control belonged within the ang He saw great force strucutre and money probs coming He thought If you put it in the guard, it was guard responsibility One more fight he didn't have to fightHe didn't know how to work command and control To me it was about several other things For a long time all of us had understtod that the likelihood of anyone attacking us in anair attack was very unlikely Further if they did it, we didn't have anykind of ad structure to defend the nation But had three things essential to conducting air war anywhere Communication, intelligence and command and control Essential for war Through 1 AF and throughNORAD we had capability to do those tings I realize that there was a force structure battle coming Didn't seem wise to me to take down very mechanism we use in case we had to boost upagain - the three things air defense system provided no matter how many units were thereTo me - it was about preserving some type of infrasturture simply did not seem wise to declare our air borders open If you declared them open and had no means whatsoever to prosecute our borders itopens it up to the obvious, anyone wanting to violate our borders would have carte blanche to do that Transiiton of laf gave us ability to maintain air sovereignty to our country Sen mccain said I was tryiing to defend old world force strucutre for ad of america NCT0067816  Not about an attack, about air borders and air sovereignty I firmly believe as of country - no matter how you did it - with fighters, balloons,aerostats - concept of air sovereignty of nationDon't declare land or water borders open, shouldn't open air borders Felt good about defending it, but when deciding how many you need, run into all sorts ofproblemsNeeded forces on various places on our coasts We were able to defend and maintain thoseHow well-suited is the ANG for this mission? The guard was tremendous well suited to do this, back in the 1950s we had something like 2600 airplanes dedicated to air defense of nation Had gurad units and ad on alert and because we had a real threat back then Had a real air dfeense system of radars and figthersShrunk as the air threat diminised and cold war changedBecame strictly an air guard missionOn the other hand, the expertise of how to really do air dfense remaied at the unit level in the air national guardSectors slowly transitioned to the guardAll of the expertise remaining for how to do air defense of america Thank goodness we had the guard on 9/11Had we taken down our entire air dfense structure, we would never have been able to dowhat we did on 9/11 Wouldn't have had command and control sturuect, liasiion w/faa and command andcontrol structure to do that A naturalguar dmissionWhat was the general mood from AF and ANG leaders alike in response to thistransition? Would you characterize the transition as smooth and seamless? Air force basically washed its hand of air defense and was no longer interested in it and we've seen that many times, the af sheds itself from the mission and that's a real problemSaw it w/weapons systems and the a? for instance,The guard was the only owners of the 17 Seen itwith reconossaisnce misison where there'snointerestfrom theactive dutyair froce When a mission is shed to the guard, the guard has to really fight for advocacy because there's none left in the air force and that has implications for pom, funding and political advocacy NCT0067817  When decision wa made by mcpeak to turn laf over to the guard, a huge fight iin the af, lots of people thought no way in the world should we do this, A 2 star slot had to go to the guard A tremendous reluctance, even though they wren't interested in air dfeense, One of the first steps in staff integrations, in other words, when it turned over to the guard, weabsolutely neededafinvolvement,andkept active duty troopsin A legel issue w/title 10 and 32 and needed ad lineup in the hq and for command and control whenanincident took place As it turned out, laf was one of the first times an active duty general officer billet wasturned over and filled by the guardThis has been a tremednosu susccess story in my opinionCourageous decision and visionary, made by gen mcpeak, not done by pure reaons, but visionary and the right thing to doThe Cold War was over and the air defense mission had drawn down considerably: wasgiving the ANG the mission a way to save it? I think gen mcpeak About getting the af right and getting the right people in charge of the right missionDo you have any examples of the 1 AF struggle for survival you may have witnessed during your tenure as ANG director? Examples you are willing to share for this book? Gen killey was very much involved in the survival of laf, dan navin was his cohort there Gen killey's fight was about force strucute, mine was about thought process of airsovereignty of the nation If you wanted to stay in line w/the little red book of the af, you had a numbered af in charge of prosecuting war You need a numbered air forceAbsolutelyif you want to stay in line w/the way the af operates, we cut 1 af size to be in line w/gen mcpeaks line Only naf that ws cut Ours was much more tailored to what gen mcpeak wanted Fight for survival In the names of efficiency and savings and budget pressures were looking at taking laf and that's the wrong thing to do ... it's about how you proseccute war and defense in w/air force doctrine and that's what it's about and laf does that Every pom cycle, you come up w/bills to pay and the quickest way to pay bills, cuttingpeople Dramatic and immediate savings so if you could do away with 1 af and those people you could do away with laf and still people looking at how to do that NCT0067818
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