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The Digital Divide And Web 2.0 Collide: The Digital Production Gap | Survey Methodology | Public Sphere

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How does class intersect with claims of digital democracy? Most digital inequality research focuses on digital consumption, but this study uses a production lens to examine who is creating digital content for the public sphere. My results point to an education-based gap among producers of online content over time. A critical mechanism of this inequality is control of digital tools and a cultural context to use the Internet. Using survey data of American adults who are already online, I apply a logit analysis of ten production activities, from blogs and web sites to discussion forums and social media sites. A persistent digital production gap, even among people who are already online, challenges theories that the Internet diversifies the public sphere. Instead, digital production inequality suggests that elite voices still dominate the media.
  Some of the findings in this paper were presented at the American Sociological Association Meeting on August 8, 2009 at the Internet and Society Session, San Francisco, CA***DRAFT – Please do not cite without author’s permission – DRAFT*** NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Poetics. Changesresulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting,and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have beenmade to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Poetics, Volume 39, Issue 2, April 2011, Pages 145-168, DOI: 10.1016/j.poetic.2011.02.003   The Digital Production Gap: The Digital Divide and Web 2.0 CollideJen Schradie Department of SociologyBerkeley Center for New MediaUniversity of California - Berkeley Abstract How does class intersect   with claims of digital democracy? Most digital inequality researchfocuses on digital consumption or participation, but this study uses a production lens to examinewho is creating digital content for the public sphere. My results    point to an education-based gapamong producers of online content. A critical mechanism of this inequality is control of digitaltools and an elite internet-in-practice and information habitus to use the Internet.   Using surveydata of American adults who are already online, I apply a logit analysis of ten productionactivities, from blogs and Web sites to discussion forums and social media sites. Even among people who are already online, a digital production gap challenges theories that the Internetcreates an egalitarian public sphere. Instead, digital production inequality suggests that elitevoices still dominate in the new digital commons. Keywords Digital inequality; new media; cultural consumption; cultural production; digital democracy;socioeconomic class Acknowledgements This paper received support from the Jacob K. Javits Foundation and a research grant from theSociology Department at the University of California-Berkeley. Additional guidance provided byIrene Bloemraad, Michael Burawoy, Coye Cheshire, Abigail DeKosnik, Andrew Fiore, ClaudeFischer, Michael Hout, Deborah Hughes-Hallett, Henry Jenkins, Samuel R. Lucas, John LeviMartin, and Cihan Tugal, but the author is solely accountable for any omissions or errors. Pleasesend any comments to Jen Schradie atschradie@berkeley.edu.  The Digital Production Gap 1. I NTRODUCTION User-generated content tools, such as blogs, video-sharing, and social media sites, havemade it possible for ordinary people to create and distribute online content for the public to view, but who are these digital voices and whose voice is missing? As this mass cultural production of electronic content grows, new empirical and theoretical questions emerge about digital inequalityfrom a  production lens, building on the existing consumption and  participation frameworks.Drawing on national surveys of 39,000 people from 2000-2008, I find that even among people who are online, a class-based digital production gap exists. Consistent control of digital production tools and a context to use those tools mediate the difference between college and highschool educated Americans, as to whether or not they create online content. 1 These explanationsfor digital inequality are much more important for production than for consumption.As the news media, academic research and public decision-making increasingly rely onInternet applications and content (Castells 2000), an under-representation of the working classonline creates an imbalance of views and perspectives. Without the voices of the poor, Americancitizens, particularly the political elite, can more easily ignore issues vital to these marginalizedcommunities (Artz 2003; Kendall 2005).Digital inequality scholarship has expanded from a divide based simply on computer ownership to a range of inequalities in access and use of various digital technologies (DiMaggioet al. 2004; Selwyn 2004; van Dijk 2005). Internet research has also moved in the direction of understanding how skills, social networks and other resources mediate digital information usage(i.e. Hargittai 2008; Mossberger et al. 2003). Much of this research has focused on the 1 This study does not examine the volume of content nor the nature of digital production. 2  The Digital Production Gap consumption of digital content. Some researchers have recently taken up the socioeconomic  participation gap (Jenkins et al. 2006), especially content sharing among youth or with socialnetworking sites (i.e. Hargittai 2007) or with electoral participation in politics and voting(Mossberger et al. 2008; Norris 2001). However, scholars have not fully examined empiricallythe extent to which poor and working class adults engage in the  production of online content for the  public’s consumption, not just for one’s social network.The theory that I explore is an argument that the Internet promotes a democratic anddiverse public sphere in which elite voices no longer dominate. Since traditional media outletshave   ignored, mediated and stereotyped the poor and working class (Artz 2003; Iyengar 1990,1991; Kendall 2005) will the new digital commons offer them a new voice? In place of the one-to-many model of content distribution by the mainstream media, some researchers (i.e. Benkler 2006; Jenkins 2006) argue that the Internet is inverting this model into a more democraticmarketplace of ideas. Rather than people consuming information from just a few corporate mediaoutlets, citizens can receive news and entertainment from millions of online outlets and citizen journalists. To refine this theory of online democracy and diversity, I test the hypothesis that adigital production gap exists by evaluating the effects of class on self-reports of ten productionactivities. These online uses, such as building Web sites, writing blogs or posting videos, resultin content for the public’s consumption.In this paper, I bring to digital divide research an analysis of digital production inequality,expanding on the literatures that analyze gaps in access, consumption, and participation. Thesefindings add digital content production to our understanding of how class affects cultural production, affirms the existence of a digital production gap, compares the mechanisms of this3  The Digital Production Gap production inequality with consumption, and contributes a class perspective to the theoreticalconversation of digital democracy discourse.4
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