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The interdependence between architectural form and light in the urban environment, based on a case study of Dragør, a sea port in Denmark

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The purpose of this thesis is to look at how light works with form to generate space. The thesis attempts to deal with the physical reality that light, space and form exist in a symbiotic relationship. The thesis deals with this relationship by
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               ,                      !  " " " # $%%&   A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the M.Phil. Examination in Environmental Design in Architecture 2004.   2 “Man is an image of the Sun”   - Hermetic writings 1   1  Cory, Isaac Preston, The ancient fragments, London: W. Pickering, 1828.   3 " '   3   ( 9  )    10  " * 1.1   Why Dragør? 13 1.2   Elements of urban environment and their importance 15 1.3   The role and need of sun in northern countries 18 1.4   The existing environmental recommendations and guidance 19 1.5   Recommendations for daylight in residential buildings 23 1.6   Sunshine availability - climatic specifics of the area 24 " $ 2.1 Dragør – the Sea Captains´ Village, history 27 2.2 The urban and architectural forms 34 2.2.1 Orientation 35 2.2.2 Built form 36 2.2.3 Longhouses historical perspective 38 2.2.4 Two stories city houses 40 2.2.5 Traditional space division inside the houses 41 2.2.6 House plan 42 2.2.7 Courtyards and Board fence 43 2.2.8 Traffic 44 " + 3.1 Geometrical studies of urban fabric 45 3.1.2 Form and void 49 3.1.3 Compass orientation 51 3.2 Density 54 3.3 Studies of architectural elements 57 3.3.1 Characteristics of materials (external surfaces) 59 3.3.2 Glazing ratio of facades 65 3.4 Natural light 67 3.4.1 Sunlight 68 3.4.2 Overshadowing 76   4 3.4.3 Daylight levels 78 3.4.4 Sky Factor and Vertical Sky Component 85 3.5 How do people react on their environment? 88 " 91   93   (, 96     5 '  ) "  Dragør, ”pocket” as an urban form in the city, (source: author)   )    Fig. 1 Dragør, Von Ostensgade, a street, partly overcast sky (source: author) Fig. 2 Dynamics of Light, changing shadow patterns in Dragør (source: author) " * Fig. 1 Dragør, Strandstræde – a lane, overcast sky (source: author) Fig. 2 Dragør, Badstuevælen, square in the city during Sunshine (source author) Fig. 3. A uniform urban structure, Nyboder, Copenhagen (source: Abrahamsen) Fig.4 Dragør, an aerial photo (source: Abrahamsen) Fig. 5 The 25˚ reference limit, above which a test for rights to light must be made (source: Littlefair) Fig. 6 The 43º boundary criterion (source: Littlefair) Fig. 7 Diagram of the site layout: (source: Yannas) Fig. 8 Map of Denmark (source: multimap) Fig. 9 Sunshine hours, for Denmark and Copenhagen marked (source: DMI) Fig. 10 Clouds coverage, a weekly summary for Copenhagen (source: Ecotect- author) " $ Fig. 1 Map of Denmark in European context (source: Atlas of Europe) Fig. 2 Area south from Copenhagen showing Dragør and cost of Sweden (source: http://www.bartholomewmaps.com/) Fig. 3 Dragør in Middle Ages, drawing (source: E. Fisher) Fig. 4 Plan of Nyboder, Copenhagen (source: http://home6.inet.tele.dk/flemclar/nyboder.html ) Fig. 5 Nyboder, Copenhagen (source: http://home6.inet.tele.dk/flemclar/nyboder.html ) Fig. 6 Map with age of the houses in Dragør (source: E. Fisher) Fig. 7 Historical overview over citizens amount in Dragør (source: E. Fisher) Fig. 8, Historical maps of Dragør (from years 1746, source: E. Fisher) Fig. 9 Historical maps of Dragør (from years 1803, source: E. Fisher) Fig. 10 Historical map of Dragør 1948 (source: E. Fisher) Fig. 11 Houses orientation in the Viking times (source: J. Ørum-Nielsen) Fig. 12 Plans of two Karré   types, with entrence from the street or from the lane (source: J. Ørum-Nielsen) Fig. 13 Plans of two Karré   types, with entrence from the street or from the lane (source: J. Ørum-Nielsen)
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