Update in Anaesthesia Issue 10 (1999)© World Anaesthesia
Self Assessment Questions from ‘Update 10’
Dr Andrew Longmate, Edinburgh Royal Infirmary UK.
The following Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) questions assess your knowledge about issues covered in“Update in Anaesthesia”.
1.A low alveolar PO
may be caused by
a)shiveringb)breathing a hypoxic mixture of gasesc)a decreased minute volumed)ventilation / perfusion mismatche)uncomplicated cardiac failure
 2.Blood in the following vessels usually has an oxygen haemoglobin saturation greater than 90%
a)pulmonary arteryb)aortac)inferior vena cavad)pulmonary veinse)halfway along the pulmonary capillary
 3.Oxygen consumption
a)is increased in malignant hyperpyrexiab)is increased under general anaesthesiac)in health, is critically dependent on oxygen deliveryd)is approximately 2L/min in the resting adulte)when increased, causes a decrease in the mixed venous PO
(assume oxygen delivery remains constant)
 4.Oxygen stores
a)are increased slightly by pre-oxygenationb)are large because oxygen is so important for cellular functionc)depend in part on blood volume and haemoglobin concentrationd)are large in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant womene)can be accurately assessed with a pulse oximeter
 5.The following commonly contribute to poor oxygenation during general anaesthesia
a)hyperventilationb)atelectasisc)ventilation / perfusion mismatchd)hypersensitive chemoreceptorse)increased metabolic rate
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Update in Anaesthesia Issue 10 (1999)© World Anaesthesia
Self Assessment Questions from ‘Update 10’
6.40% oxygen via a facemask is appropriate oxygen therapy for a patient with
a)a shunt equivalent to 40% of cardiac output due to pneumoniab)a reduced minute volume due to opioid analgesiac)complete upper airway obstructiond)hypovolaemic shoce)ischaemic heart disease following uncomplicated major surgery
a)can be started in the ward prior to coming to theatreb)as part of a rapid sequence induction occurs following induction of anaesthesia but beforeintubation of the tracheac)causes a significant increase in the oxygen bound to haemoglobin in the bloodd)should take place through an anaesthetic circuit and a high oxygen flow rate and the mask held just off the facee)allows for acceptable oxygenation during 10 minutes of apnoea
8.The PO
a)in the trachea while breathing air is about 150 mmHgb)in the arterial blood while breathing air is about 100 mmHg (13 kPa)c)in the alveoli can exceed 600 mmHg when breathing 100% oxygend)of venous blood may fall when cardiac output is very lowe)in the mitochondria in the brain is higher than in venous blood
 9)After recent significant head injury with loss of consciousness and a period of decreased GCS, suitable anaesthetic techniques for fixation of fractured elbow include:
a)local anaesthetic blocb)spontaneous ventilation with 2% halothanec)intravenous ketamined)ventilation with a low concentration of whatever volatile agent is available to you (eg 0.5%halothane)e)avoidance of suxamethonium
10)Difficult intubation is associated with:
a)a short thick necb)limited mouth openingc)dental abscessd)limited neck movementse)a Mallampati grade 1
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Update in Anaesthesia Issue 10 (1999)© World Anaesthesia
11)Strategies that can be used in patients likely to be a difficult intubation include:
a)regional anaesthesiab)inhalational induction and spontaneous ventilation with a volatile agentc)paralysis with alcuronium or pancuronium after intravenous thiopentone.d)awake intubatione)cautious intravenous anaesthesia using ketamine
12)Interscalene block
a)is good for hand surgeryb)is likely to work when paraesthesia or twitchesoccur over the shoulder.c)is useful for operations on the shoulder or upper armd)can be used to reduce dislocated shouldere)frequently blocks the phrenic nerve
13)A fit occurring in association with placementof a major local anaesthetic block
a)may be due to direct injection of local anaesthetic into a blood vesselb)may be because too big a dose of local anaesthetic has been givenc)should be managed by giving oxygen and maintaining the airwayd)if the fit does not stop may be treated with thiopentone or diazepame)may be associated with cardiac arrhythmias or arrest
14)Pre-oxygenation in pregnant women is especially important because:
a)intubation may be difficultb)they have a reduced lung volume (decreased FRC-functional residual capacity)c)they use up oxygen faster than non pregnant patientsd)can be achieved by breathing oxygen for 3 minutes with a tight fitting face mask.e)can be achieved by performing 3 vital capacity breaths of 100% oxygen
15)Agents which may be given at the time of induction of general anaesthesia for Caesarean sectionwhen there is pre-eclampsia include:
a)thiopentoneb)etomidatec)magnesium sulphated)alfentanile)ketamine
16)A pregnant patient complains of difficulty breathing and tingling in the arms soon after a spinal with heavy bupivacaine for Caesarean section. Actions to perform include:
a)place the patient head downb)give oxygen and be ready to control the airwayc)speed the iv infusion upd)place a pillow under the head and shoulderse)leave the room to continue scrubbing up for surgery.
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Update in Anaesthesia Issue 10 (1999)© World Anaesthesia
17)Contraindications to the use of NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) for the control  of pain include:
a)renal failureb)all asthmatic patientsc)patients actively bleedingd)old and frail patientse)patients with peptic ulcer
18)Concerning pain relief in children:
a)they have no need for pain relieb)morphine is too dangerous to givec)NSAIDs should not be usedd)paracetamol is too weak to be usefule)local anaesthetic blocks are useful
19)Features of an anaphylactic reaction include:
a)low blood pressureb)diarrhoeac)wheezingd)flushed appearancee)swelling around the face and airway
 20)Treatment of an anaphylactic reaction includes:
a)adrenalineb)steroidsc)iv fluidsd)antihistaminee)antibiotics
 21)Causes of a fast pulse (greater than 100) include:
a)painb)ketaminec)hypovolaemic shocd)atropinee)fever
 22)Causes of a slow pulse (less than 50 beats per minute) include:
a)hypoxiab)neostigminec)cervical dilatationd)vasovagal episodes
Self Assessment Questions from Update 10Page 4
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