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60756255 Children s Literature | Dorothy Gale | L. Frank Baum

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Children Literature: history and criticism Popularity of The Wizard Of The Oz in American Literature, Society, and Media Submitted as a partial fulfillment of the requirements For popular literature By Amir Rostamdokht 08/273066/PMU/5378 Department of American Studies Faculty of Multi-Disciplinary Postgraduate school Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta 1 A. Introduction I. History of children literature Literature written specifically for an audience of children began to be published on a wid
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  Children Literature: history and criticismPopularity of The Wizard Of The Ozin American Literature,Society, and Media   Submitted as a partial fulfillment of the requirementsFor popular literature By  Amir Rostamdokht08/273066/PMU/5378Department of American StudiesFaculty of Multi-DisciplinaryPostgraduate schoolGadjah MadaUniversity Yogyakarta 1  A.Introduction I. History of children literature Literature written specifically for an audience of children began to be published on a widescale in the seventeenth century. Most of the early books for children weredidacticrather than artistic, meant to teach letter sounds and words or to improve the child's moral andspiritual life. In the mid-1700s, however, British publisher John Newbery (1713 - 1767),influenced by John Locke's ideas that children should enjoy reading, began publishing booksfor children's amusement. Since that time there has been a gradual transition from thedeliberate use of purely didactic literature toinculcate moral, spiritual, and ethical values in children to the provision of literature to entertain and inform. This does not imply thatsuitable literature for children is either immoralor amoral. On the contrary, suitable literaturefor today's children is influenced by the cultural and ethical values of its authors. Thesevalues are frequently revealed as the literary work unfolds, but they are a means to an end,not an end in themselves. Authors assume a degree of intelligence on the part of their audience that was not assumed in the past. In this respect, children's literature has changeddramatically since its earliest days.Another dramatic development in children's literature in the twentieth century has beenthe picture book. Presenting an idea or story in which pictures and words work together tocreate an aesthetic whole, the picture book traces its srcin to the nineteenth century, whensuch outstanding artists as Randolph Caldecott, Kate Greenaway, and Walter Crane were atwork. In the 1930s and 1940s such great illustrators as Wanda Gag, Marguerite de Angeli,James Daugherty, Robert Lawson, Dorothy Lathrop, Ludwig Bemelmans, Maud and MiskaPetersham, and Ingri and Edgar Parin d'Aulaire began their work. Many of these and other equallyillustrious artists helped to bring picture books to their present position of   prominence. Since 1945 many highly talented illustrators have entered this field.With the advent of computer-based reproduction techniques in the latter part of thetwentieth century, the oncetediousand expensive process of full color reproduction wasrevolutionized, and now almost any srcinal media can be successfully translated into picture book form. Although many artists continue to work with traditional media such as printmaking, pen and ink, photography, and paint, they have been joined by artists who work with paper sculpture, mixed media constructions, and computer graphics.The changes in literature for older children have been equally important. Among the earlyand lasting contributions to literature for children were works by Jack London, Mark Twain,Rudyard Kipling, Edgar Allan Poe, Robert Louis Stevenson, andHans Christian Andersen.  These writers, however, considered adults their major audience; therefore, they directed onlysome of their literary efforts toward young readers. Today, large numbers of highly talentedauthors have turned to younger readers for an audience and direct most, if not all, of their writings to them.Another major change in publishing for children has been the rise inmulticultural children's literature. Prior to the mid-twentieth century the world depicted in children's bookswas largely a white world. If characters from a nonwhite culture appeared in children's booksthey were almost always badly stereotyped. The civil rights movement alerted publishers and the reading public to the need for books that depicted the America of all children, not just a 2  white majority. Although the percentage of children's books by and about people of color does not equate with their actual population numbers, authors of color such as VirginiaHamilton, Mildred Taylor, Alma Flor Ada, Walter Dean Myers, Gary Soto, and LaurenceYep, and illustrators such as Allen Say, Ed Young, John Steptoe, Jerry Pinkney, and BrianPinkney have made major contributions to a more multiculturally balanced world of children's books. Not only are there larger numbers of talented writers and artists from many cultures atwork for children, but the range of subject matter discussed in children's fiction has also beenextended remarkably. Topics that were consideredtabooonly a short time ago are being presented in good taste. Young readers from ten to fourteen can read well-written fiction thatdeals with death, child abuse, economic deprivation,alternative life styles, illegitimate  pregnancy, juvenile gang warfare, and rejected children. By the early twenty-first century ithad become more nearly true than ever before that children may explore life throughliterature. II. Literature in the Lives of Children Literature serves children in four major ways: it helps them to better understandthemselves, others, their world, and the aesthetic values of written language. When childrenread fiction, narrative poetry, or biography, they often assume the role of one of thecharacters. Through that character's thoughts, words, and actions the child develops insightinto his or her own character and values. Frequently, because of experiences with literature,the child's modes of behavior and value structures are changed, modified, or extended.When children assume the role of a book's character as they read, they interact vicariouslywith the other characters portrayed in that particular selection. In the process they learnsomething about the nature of behavior and the consequences of personal interaction. In onesense they become aware of the similarities and differences among people.Because literature is not subject to temporal or spatial limitations, books can figurativelytransport readers across time and space. Other places in times past, present, or future invitechildren's exploration. Because of that exploration, children come to better understand theworld in which they live and their own relationship to it.Written language in its literary uses is an instrument of artistic expression. Through proseand poetry children explore the versatility of the written word and learn to master its depth of meaning. Through literature, too, children can move beyond the outer edges of reality and place themselves in worlds of make-believe,unfetteredby the constraints of everyday life. III.Environment The three principal settings in which children's literature functions are the home, the public library, and the school. In each of these settings, the functions of literature aresomewhat different, but each function supports the others and interacts with them. Home. Irrefutable evidence indicates that those children who have had an early andcontinuing chance to interact with good literature are moreaptto succeed in school thanthose who have not. Parents who begin to readaloudto their children, often from birth, arecommunicating the importance of literature by providing anenjoyable experience. The young 3  child makes a lasting connection between books, which provide pleasure, and the undisputed  attention from the parent who takes time to do the reading. During the preschoolyears, bookscontribute to children's language structures and to their vocabulary. Children acquire a senseof language pattern and rhythm from the literary usage of language that is not found ineveryday conversational speech. Then, too, children discover that print has meaning, and asthey acquire the ability to read print as well as understand pictures, children find further  pleasure in books. In finding that reading has its ownintrinsicreward, children acquire themost important motivation for learning to master reading skills. Public library . Public libraries have taken on an increasingly important role inserving children. Children's rooms, which were once the domain of a few select children, areinviting places for all children, whether or not they areinveterate readers. Libraries organize story hours, present films, and provide computers and quiet places to do homework as well as present special book-related events and sponsor book clubs and summer reading programs.Children's librarians guide the reading interests of children and act as consultants to parents.Full exploitation of the public library in the broader education of children has not yet beenachieved, but growing acceptance by the public of the library as a community necessity rather than a luxury will help it to continue to play an increasingly important role in the lives of children. School. Literature did not begin to make broad inroads into the reading curriculumuntil the 1950s. Before that time many schools had no library, and a good number of theseschools did not even feel the need for one. Many schools relied almost exclusively ontextbooks for instruction. By the end of the twentieth century, however, nearly everycurriculum authority had come to recognize the importance of trade books (books other thantextbooks) in the in-school education of children. In the early twenty-first century mostschools have central librariesstaffedby trained librarians and some schools provide financialsupport for classroom libraries as well. When this is not the case, teachers, recognizing thevalue of good literature, often reach into their own pockets to provide trade books for their classrooms. A 1998 survey of school library media programs by the Center of EducationStatistics of the U.S. Department of Education found a mean of twenty-eight volumes per elementary school child in both public and private schools.Function in the school curriculum. Literature plays an increasingly large role in theformal education of children in three related but rather discrete areas: the instructionalreading program, the subject matter areas, and the literature program.Most instructional reading programs recognize the importance of literature. Basalreading textbook programs generally recommend that trade books be used from the beginningof formal reading instruction in order to motivate readers through the long, and sometimesfrustrating, efforts that learning to read usually demands. Through trade books the reader finds those efforts are rewarded by the pleasure gained from reading. In many schools theteaching of reading has been centered on trade books rather than textbooks. But in literature- based programs, teachers plan instruction around experiences with real books, experiencesthat include helping students make their own reading choices and giving children time toshare responses to reading with their peer group. Schools with such literature-based programsrecognize the importance of creating a classroom community of readers that will not onlyhelp children learn how to read but will also encourage them to become lifelong readers. 4
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