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OTTOMAN – CRIMEAN RELATIONS UNDER THE DOMINANCE OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE

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Since time began, today’s Crimean land caused lots of struggle because of the geopolitical position, which holds Black Sea trade, it has. It is also a debatable issue Crimean Khanate’s position during the Ottoman Empire’s domination. The aims of the
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  i OTTOMAN  –   CRIMEAN RELATIONS UNDER THE DOMINANCE OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE HIST-419 AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY BY MELIKE BATGIRAY STUDENT NUMBER: 1855709 ADVISOR Assist. Prof. Dr. GÜÇLÜ TÜLÜVELİ  JUNE 2016 ANKARA    ii ABSTRACT Since time began, today’ s Crimean land caused lots of struggle because of the geopolitical position , which holds Black Sea trade, it has. It is also a debatable issue Crimean Khanate’s  position during the Ottoman Empire’s domination. The aims of the study were to brief overview to Crimean History to understand the term during Ottoman domination, relations of Ottoman Empire and Crimean Khanate and the protocol which was made to Crimean Khans. Subsequent to this, how was the end of this relationship question was asked in the study.  ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Firstly, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my advisor Assist. Prof. Dr. Güçlü TÜLÜVELİ for the continuous support of my study and related research, for his patience, motivation, and immense knowledge. His guidance helped me in all the time of research and writing of this thesis. I could not have imagined having a better advisor and mentor for my study. I am also grateful to   Assoc. Prof. Dr Hakan Kırımlı, lecturer, in the Department of International Relations in Bilkent University. I am extremly thankful and indebted to him for sharing expertise, and sincere and valuable guidance and encouragement extended to me and let me attend his classes during my thesis writting process. Completing this work and the collage would have been all the more difficult were it not for the support provided by the other members of the Middle East Technical University Department of History. I am indebted to them for their help and support. And also I would like to say thank you Berk GÖKÇE. When I s aid him that I was going to thank him in my study, he told me he did not do anything for my study : You did… Every time when I get exhausted, tired, harassed and sometimes when I decided to take a long break, you supported me to study and I felt your faith in me. If you were not in my life, I could not have motivated. I am so lucky to have you in my life Berk… I could not be K  haleesi, if you were not Khal. Getting through my dissertation required more than academic support, and I have many, many people to thank for listening to and, at times, having to tolerate me over the past four years. I cannot begin to express my gratitude and appreciation for their friendship.   Irfan Ertan   has been unwavering in their personal and professional support during the time I spent at the University Last but not the least, I would like to thank my family: my parents and to sisters for supporting me spiritually throughout writing this thesis and my my life in general. Love you BATGIRAYs Thank you…  Melike BATGIRAY  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................... i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ..................................................................................... ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ...................................................................................... iii INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 1 CHAPTER I: CRIMEA IN HISTORY ................................................................. 2 1.1- The First Habitants of Crimea ........................................................ 2 1.2- The Tatars ………... ........................................................................ 3 1.3- Crimean Khanate and Ottoman Empire: First Encounter ……...…  5 CHAPTER II: C RIMEA’S STATUS IN OTTOMAN EMPIR ……………… . …  7 2.1- Ottoman Provices’ Status   …….... ............................................................. 7 2.2- Crimean Ruling Under The Ottoman Empire .......................................... 8 a-   Crimean Khanate in Ottoman Diplomacy and Foreign …………...  19 b-   Th e Crimean ―Akçe‖ …………………………………………… ... 22 c-   The Crimean Khutbah ……………………………………………. 23 d-   Crimean Khans’ State Protocol in Ottoman Empire   …………….. 23 e-   Hostage Taking In Ottoman Empire ……………………………… 24 f-   Dismissed Khans’ Farms in Ottoman Empire   ……………………. 25 g-   Did the Crimean Khans An Alternative to the Ottoman Dynasty ... 30 CHAPTER III: OTTOMAN- RUSSIAN RIVALRY ON CRIMEA …………... 31  3.1- Russian Interest In Crimean Khanate ……………………………….. 31 3.2- Şahin Geray and Russian Collaboration   ……………………………. 31 CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................... 33 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................... 34  1 INTRODUCTION The study I wrote is a general overview to relations between Ottoman Empire and Crimean Khanate which has a different status other than these are Ottoman Empire has relations in its history. Why I wanted to write about this topic is that there were not enough studies about Crimean History in the perspective of relations between Ottoman Empire and Crimean Khanate. In my opinion, earlier history of Crimean Khanate, which ruled by Ottoman Sultans behind the scenes, is important to understand relations clearly. Because of this reason, I started from the existence of Crimea in my study. There are lots of Crimean History study which talks about both before and after Ottoman reign. Alan Fisher’s and Hakan Kırımlı’s b ooks were a pathfinder for my study. Both of theirs works talk about Crimean History . In addition to theirs studies, Hammer, Evliya Çelebi, Halil Inalcık, Cemal Kafadar, Philip Mansel and Cengiz Fedakar’s books helped me to see the Crimea in the history of Ottoman Empire. My main target was collect the informations given and create a new perspective to Ottoman-Crimean relations. In my study, I defend the opinion which Crimean Khanate had a different status in the empire and Khans were thought as an alternative for the Ottoman throne. I hope, the study I wrote could be a ray of hope for the next studies which are about Ottoman Empire and Crimean Khanate relations.
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